禁煙の話題(4) ― ciggy





Ciggy-hoarding smokers boost Japan's economy

Yusuke Sato says a man walked into his tobacco store in Atsugi, southwest of Tokyo, this month and bought 100 cartons of Mild Seven cigarettes. While they may not be good for his health, he may have saved about $1360.

The man is one of thousands of smokers across Japan stocking up before October 1 to beat a record 40 per cent tax increase on tobacco. Their hoarding may add as much as 1.4 percentage points to this quarter's annualised economic growth rate, according to estimates from the Japan Research Institute.

"We were afraid we would run out of stock," said Sato, who started taking reservations for cartons last month. "Thirty cartons has been the norm." Next month, customers would pay 110,000 yen ($1358.50) more for the same 20,000-cigarette order after the price of a pack of 20 jumps by a third, he said.
(The Sydney Morning Herald. September 28, 2010.)



禁煙の話題(3) ― most treasured vice


下記の記事で、"the country's most treasured vice"という表現が目に留まりました。


At a time when Japanese consumer sentiment continues to wane, an upcoming tax increase on cigarettes may be drastic enough for consumers to quit one of the country’s most treasured vices, according to a new survey.

Nearly 60% of smokers said they planned to quit because of the pending increase, up from 35% in 2006 when the last tax jump went into effect, according to a survey conducted by Johnson & Johnson’s Japan unit. Japan’s intent to raise taxes on cigarettes, set to take effect Friday, will lead to an additional cost of 3.5 (4 cents) yen per cigarette, one of the steepest changes in recent years.
(Yoree Koh. Are Taxes the Way to Beat Smoking in Japan? The Wall Street Journal. September 29, 2010.)


禁煙の話題(2) ― ectopic pregnancy


女性の皆様、喫煙が子宮外妊娠(ectopic pregnancy)のリスクを増すということをご存知でしたか?

The Ectopic Pregnancy Trust has welcomed the publication of research that explains the link between smoking and ectopic pregnancy, saying it offers women at risk an opportunity to reduce their chances of suffering from the life-threatening condition.

A study by University of Edinburgh scientists has been published in the American Journal of Pathology explaining why women who smoke could be as much as four times more likely to suffer an ectopic pregnancy.
(Ectopic Pregnancy Trust comments on smoking link. Nursinginpractice.com. September 28, 2010.)

元記事は、このたびのレポート(publication of research)が、子宮外妊娠に関連する喫煙の物理的な影響(physical effects of cigarette smoking in relation to ectopic pregnancy)を明確にしている、ということなのですが、そこのところは記事には詳細が無く、思わせぶりです。


禁煙の話題 ― acupuncture





Acupuncture is a great option to help to address the physical aspects of quitting smoking, and can provide support and encouragement to help make quitting a success. One of the effects of nicotine on the body is that it stimulates the body to produce endorphins. When you quit smoking, the endorphin levels in the body initially drop while the body adjusts to producing normal level of endorphins again. This endorphin drop causes withdrawal symptoms such as irritability, tension, anxiety, and restlessness, particularly during the first few weeks of quitting. One of the effects that acupuncture has on the body is that it stimulates endorphin production. The endorphin boost helps to reduce stress and calm the mind, and by relaxing the body, it can help reduce cravings. In this way acupuncture is a very useful tool in overcoming withdrawal symptoms and making the adjustment to a smoke-free lifestyle.
(James Kaufman. Acupuncture & quitting smoking. Castanet.net. September 27, 2010.)




マジックミラー ― two-way mirror

”マジックミラー”というのは、想像がつくと思いますが和製英語です。英語では、"two-way mirror"というのが正しいです。



Teresa Lewis spent the last days before her execution as she had spent one side of her life - singing hymns and praying. That devotion to Christianity, by her own admission, was countered by outrageous bouts of sex and betrayal.


Lewis died by injection at 9:13 p.m., apologizing first to the sole surviving daughter of the husband she had killed. She was the first woman in Virginia since 1912 put to death. Her supporters and relatives of the victims watched her execution at Greensville Correctional Center in Jarratt.


Moments before her execution, Lewis asked if her husband's daughter - her stepdaughter - was near. She was. Kathy Clifton was in an adjacent witness room blocked from the inmate's view by a two-way mirror.

"I want Kathy to know that I love her and I'm very sorry," Lewis said.
(Va. Executes First Woman in Nearly 100 Years. CBS News. September 24, 2010.)




きわどい ― close call


本日取り上げる単語(表現)は、"close call"です。ご存知の方も多いでしょうが、”危機一髪”という意味で使われる表現です。辞書のエントリにも、米語、カナダの口語表現としてエントリがあります。例えば、以下のような例文があります。

It was a close call and looking back now I have no doubt that if my friend hadn't acted so promptly I would be dead.
(Dictionary of Idioms. HarperCollins Publishers. 1995.)

(私もそうですが)多くの方が、"close call"、イコール、”危機一髪”と暗記していますが、下記の記事の用例ではどうもしっくりきません。

The American Cancer Society and other influential organizations say getting a mammogram is "one of the most important things a woman can do to protect her health."

A study and editorial in Thursday's New England Journal of Medicine offers a more restrained view: The decision to undergo breast cancer screening is a close call.

The study, by researchers from Norway and Harvard University, expands the never-ending debate over the value of mammograms. Previously, the debate centered on women in their 40s, when breast cancer is relatively rare but often aggressive. The new study concludes that screening doesn't save many lives, even among women aged 50 to 69, who are at higher risk of the malignancy.
(New study widens debate on the value of mammograms. The Philadelphia Inquirer. September 23, 2010.)

乳がん検診に使われるマンモグラフィーの意義が問われているようです。乳がん検診を受けるかどうかの判断は、"close call"ということですが、ここを”危機一髪”と解釈しようとすると意味がつながりません。

記事の後半で、"close call"がもう一度出てきます。

The new study did not look at the risks of screening - namely, overdiagnosis and overtreatment. However, the editorial said that in the United States, about 1,000 of every 2,500 women screened for a decade would have at least one false alarm, 500 of them would undergo an unnecessary biopsy, and five or more would be treated for cancers that would never have become lethal.

"The test is surely a close call, a delicate balance between modest benefit and modest harm," H. Gilbert Welch, a Dartmouth Medical School primary-care physician, wrote in his editorial.

That message could be misinterpreted, worried Emily F. Conant, chief of breast imaging at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania.

"close call"、イコール、”危機一髪”ではうまくいかない事例のひとつと思います。ここでは、(乳がん検診をうけるか否かの)判断が、”きわどい”ものであること、また、(検診自体が)それを受ける女性自身にとってベネフィットがあるのかないのか、”微妙なところ”、という意味合いで用いられていると解釈すべきでしょう。


悪評も評!? ― parlay

私は芸能ニュースには疎く、ましてそれが海外の芸能人やセレブのお話となるとまったく知識がないのですが、このブログを開始して以来、Google Newsなどを見ていますとトップ記事にこの名前を見ることが頻繁で(目にしない日が無い、というと大げさですが)、いつもは詳細記事はスキップするのですが、今日は興味があって記事を読んでみました。


Paris Hilton left Japan on Wednesday after lengthy questioning from airport officials, and following media reports that the socialite would not be allowed into the country after pleading guilty to possessing cocaine.

Hilton, 29, had flown into Tokyo on Tuesday for a fashion show but had been held back by officials at Narita airport so they could decide whether to allow her into Japan.
(Paris Hilton leaves Japan after questioning. Reuters. September 22, 2010.)


The former star of reality TV show "The Simple Life" is a member of the family that founded the Hilton hotel chain, and she has parlayed her notoriety into a successful career endorsing products in fashion, fragrances and other industries.



parlay ~ into




建て直し ― turn around



TV talk show host Oprah Winfrey said on Monday she would give a total of $6 million to six educational organizations that help to turn around troubled U.S. schools.

The award is the largest given by Winfrey's Angel Network during her show and came as Winfrey devoted two days of her influential TV program to the issue of public schooling.

The winning organizations, announced on Monday's broadcast, are based in Philadelphia, California, Colorado, Illinois, Louisiana and Texas.
(Jon Hurdle. Oprah Winfrey gives $6 million to U.S. schools. The Reuters. September 20, 2010.)

"turn around"には、”相手を批難する”という意味もあります。こちらもやはり”方向転換する”という比喩から発展しています。意味合いとしては、今までは味方だったのに急に変節して(つまり方向転換して)、批判する側に回る、ということです。この用法での実例についてはいずれまた。


過つは ― fallible

To err is human, to forgive divine.

過ちは人の常、赦すは神の業、とは18世紀のAlexander Popeによる言葉です。


To those of us who are not climate scientists, it may come down to this: How can we be so certain what the climate will be like a century from now if you can't get a decent weather forecast more than two weeks ahead? In the end, isn't climate change just too complex? True, weather forecasters are fallible, and there is no planet out there similar to Earth so we can truly gauge the effect human activity is having on our climate. But climate researchers are increasingly confident of their models and simulations. Besides, some argue, predicting the weather is tougher than predicting the climate, and scientists have been working on perfecting climate models for more than a century.
(Christian Science Monitor. 1997.)


台風縦断 ― barrel



Residents, utility crews and railroad workers were cleaning up debris Friday after a brief but fierce storm barreled through the city, tearing up trees, stripping roofs from homes, disrupting train service and killing at least one person.
(Possible Tornado Eyed in Deadly NYC Storm. CBS News. September 17, 2010.)

"barrel"には、動詞で"to move at high speed" (American Heritage Dictionary)という意味があります。英和辞典などでは、口語で”疾走する”、(車を)”飛ばす”という訳語が見えます。



気概 ― derring-do




If you have the millions to spare and the derring-do, your chances of being strapped in and launched to the international space station improved markedly Wednesday when two major companies agreed to join forces to make space travel significantly more available.

The Boeing aerospace company announced an agreement with Space Adventures Ltd. of Vienna, Va., to establish a space taxi system that will launch its passengers into low Earth orbit.
(Marc Kaufman. Boeing, partner plan space taxi for tourists by 2016. The Washington Post. September 16, 2010.)

"derring-do"は、”daring to do”(大胆にも~する)という動詞句が誤って名詞句に解釈されたものです。



クビ!(4) ― dismiss


THE 187 Shabanie Mine workers who have been dismissed for participating in a strike last year have taken the asbestos company to the Labour Court in Gweru where they are challenging their dismissal.

One of the affected workers told Chronicle that the company had not followed the procedures when it dismissed them.

“A section of the Labour Act states that when a company decides to dismiss its workers it must first conduct a hearing and it must be that hearing which should rule that the worker or workers should be dismissed. The hearing is meant to afford employees a platform to defend themselves.
(Shabanie workers take company to court. Chronicle. September 15, 2010.)


クビ!(3) ― terminate


terminate employment


If you're looking for reasons to terminate Omar Minaya's employment you could parse each and every move the man has made during his tenure. Or you could look at the current product on the field or the Mets' immediate future and decide whether that justifies the man losing his job.
(Craig Calcaterra. HBT: Omar Minaya must either quit or be fired. MSNBC. August 31, 2010.)



クビ!(2) ― shelve





BEIJING—Anshan Iron & Steel Group Corp., also known as AnSteel, said Friday it hasn't given up on its planned project in the U.S. with Steel Development Co., and that an Anshan executive was mistaken on Thursday when he said the plan had been shelved.
(Anshan Holds to U.S. Plan. The Wall Street Journal. August 21, 2010.)



Dr. Neal ElAttrache, the Los Angeles Dodgers team physician, used platelet-rich plasma therapy in July on a partially torn ulnar collateral ligament in the throwing elbow of pitcher Takashi Saito. Surgery would have ended Mr. Saito's season and shelved him for about 10 to 14 months; he instead returned to pitch in the September pennant race without pain.
(Alan Schwarz. Promising Treatment for Athletes, in the Blood. New York Times. 2009.)




クビ! ― dump


Nokia dumps CEO, turns to Microsoft exec

Nokia Corp. is replacing CEO Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo with top Microsoft executive Stephen Elop as the world's top handset maker aims to regain lost ground in the fiercely competitive smartphone market.

Elop, head of Microsoft's business division, has held top posts at Juniper Networks Inc., Adobe Systems Inc., Macromedia Inc. He takes over Sept. 21, the company said Friday.
(Bloomberg Businessweek. September 10, 2010.)





遺伝子組み換え食品 ― genetically alerted


The Food and Drug Administration is within steps of green lighting genetically modified salmon as a safe food product, which would be the first genetically altered animal approved for human consumption.

The AquAdvantage salmon, a cross on the traditional Atlantic salmon, was created using a genetic cocktail of genomes taken from other fish – a gene from the ocean pout that prevents freezing and a growth gene from the Chinook salmon for faster growing speeds than regular Atlantic salmon.

Engineered by Massachusetts-based AquaBounty, the fish are claimed to be safe for people to eat by the company – and now, by the FDA. "We've been studying this fish for more than 10 years," Ronald L. Stotish, the company's president and chief executive, told The Washington Post. "In characteristics, physiology, behavior, this is an Atlantic salmon. It looks like an Atlantic salmon. It tastes like an Atlantic salmon."
(Allie Townsend. Would You Eat Genetically Altered Meat? Time. September 9, 2010.)

"genetically modified"は、よく言う遺伝子組み換えのことだと分かりましたが、"genetically modified"が分かりません。


そうすると、"genetically alerted"とは、遺伝子組み換えであることの表示をしている、という形容なのでしょうか?


意地悪 ― vindictive



ヒューレット・パッカード社のCEOだったMark Hurd氏を、競合他社のオラクルがPresident待遇で迎えたことがニュースになっています。


Oracle Corp., the world’s second- biggest software maker, said it will pay former Hewlett-Packard Co. Chief Executive Officer Mark Hurd $950,000 a year in salary, with a bonus of as much as $10 million.

Oracle, which disclosed the compensation in a regulatory filing, said Hurd’s target bonus for fiscal 2011 is $5 million and will not exceed $10 million.
(Peter Elstrom. Oracle Will Pay Hurd $950,000 a Year With Target Bonus $5 Million for 2011. Bloomberg. September 8, 2010.)

さて、このMark Hurd氏の古巣になるヒューレット・パッカードはこの移籍は面白くない訳で、機密情報が漏れるとかいう理由で訴訟を起こしたようです。


Hewlett-Packard filed a lawsuit yesterday to stop Hurd from working at Oracle, saying it would be impossible for him to work as president at the company without disclosing HP trade secrets and confidential information. Oracle CEO Larry Ellison in a statement called the lawsuit “vindictive” and said it would make it more difficult for the two companies to work together.






睡眠時間が小児肥満に影響 ― pile on pounds

子供が必要な睡眠時間は1日10時間以上が理想で、下回ると小児肥満(childhood obesity)のリスクが増すとの記事が目に付きました。

A good night’s sleep in the early years of life could be crucial in preventing a child becoming obese, say scientists.

Babies, toddlers and pre-school children who sleep for less than ten hours a night are more likely to be overweight when they are older, research has found.
(Sophie Borland. Obesity warning for children who don’t get ten hours' sleep. The Daily Mail. September 7, 2010.)


Last year Chinese researchers looked at more than 5,000 youngsters and found that those who were able to catch up on sleep at the weekend were far less likely to pile on the pounds.

"pile on the pounds"という表現は成句でしょうか?"pile"という動詞自体が、積み重ねる、積み上げる、という意味がありますから、体重が増えるほうの話であることは自然と理解できます。

手持ちの英和辞書では、"pile on the pounds"というエントリは見当たりませんでしたが、恐らく成句として機能していると思います。


Weight problems add stress to already stressful jobs, costing many soldiers promotions and leading some to try desperate measures like rubber suits and risky pills to shed pounds. # Problems don't end when active duty does, either. The Veterans Affairs health system increasingly is strained by vets piling on pounds and developing weight-related diseases like diabetes.
(DIET: Too fat to fight? Obesity takes a heavy toll on the military. Associated Press. 2005.)

Top nutritionists and trainers tell you how to indulge without remorse -- and without piling on pounds.
(Laura Petrecca. Go Ahead, Eat the Whole Thing. Prevention. 2003.)


密輸 ― smuggle


A MALAYSIAN man has admitted wildlife smuggling after his bag filled with 95 live boa constrictors burst open on an airport luggage conveyor belt.

Keng Liang Wong, 52, who was previously convicted of wildlife trafficking in the US, was arrested at Kuala Lumpur International Airport after the snakes were found.
(Snake smuggler uncovered after 95 live boas found in his luggage. Daily Record. September 4, 2010.)

密輸と言えばモノが対象ですが、ヒトになると密入国です。その場合も目的語がモノからヒトに変わっただけということになりますが、そのほかのパターンとしては、"smuggle oneself into a country"だったり、"xxx smuggle into a country"のような形で現れることもあります。

Staff foil plot to smuggle six into UK

IMMIGRATION officials discovered a group of Afghans trying to sneak into Britain by secretly hiding in a lorry bound for South Yorkshire.

The stowaways were discovered by UK Border Agency officers in Northern France using sniffer dogs and visual checks as they inspected vehicles preparing to cross the English Channel to Dover.
(The Star. September 6, 2010.)


グーグルは出刃亀? ― snoop

ストリートビューを始めとして、何かとプライバシー問題で批判されることの多いGoogleですが、消費者団体による突き上げは、New YorkのTimes Squareで風刺動画が放映されるまでに至ったようです。

SAN FRANCISCO — A video cartoon featuring Google's chief giving away ice cream to snoop on children aired on a giant screen in Times Square as a privacy group continued to hound the Internet giant.

Consumer Watchdog took its gripes with Google to the center of Manhattan on Thursday, where it paid to have a "Don't be evil?" animated clip shown on a "Jumbotron" screen above the masses coursing through Times Square.

A cartoon version of Google chief executive Eric Schmidt was shown cruising a residential neighborhood in an ice cream truck, spying on children and disclosing their parents' Internet browsing habits.
(Video lambasting Google on privacy hits Times Square. AFP. September 3, 2010.)

Times Squareで放映されたものと同じ風刺動画はこちらで見ることができます。


風刺動画では、GoogleのCEOであるEric Schmidt氏が住宅地にトラックで乗り込み、子供たちにアイスクリームを無料で配りながら、その実プライバシーを収集している、というものなのですが、米国でも最も人通りの多いTimes Squareで1日36回に渡って放映されているそうです。


アルコールは体内時計に影響 ― circadian


Chronic drinking can disrupt production of the genes that control the body's daily biological (circadian) rhythms, leading to problems such as sleep disruption and mood changes, new research reports. 

The researchers compared blood samples from 22 male alcoholics and 12 healthy men and found that the circadian clock genes in the alcoholic patients had significantly lower levels of an RNA molecule (known as messenger ribonucleic acid) that helps to manufacture proteins. 

This indicates that alcoholics have lower levels of circadian clock gene production (or what researchers call "expression"), according to the study published online and in the November print issue of the journal Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research. 

"In other words, chronic alcohol consumption was associated with a destruction of normal circadian clock gene expression. This altered expression is closely related to circadian rhythm dysfunction and might link to a variety of physiological problems, such as sleep/wake cycle dysregulation, depression, and even cancer," study corresponding author Sy-Jye Leu, a researcher at Taipei Medical University in Taiwan, said in a journal news release.
(Chronic Drinking Linked to Circadian Disruptions. Bloomberg Businessweek. August 25, 2010.) 

 引用記事に頻繁に出てくる今日の単語、"circadian"ですが、ラテン語で、 "circa"(約、おおよそ)+"dies"(日、一日) に由来しており、“おおよそ1日の”、つまり24時間周期の、という意味合いです。



名折れ ― reflection


Anton Geesink, a 6-foot-6 Dutchman who stunned Japan when he defeated Japanese opponents to win the 1961 world judo championship and capture a gold medal at the 1964 Tokyo Games, died Friday in Utrecht, the Netherlands. He was 76.


In the 1961 world championships in Paris, Geesink, the European champion, defeated Koji Sone of Japan, the defending title holder.

That triumph, at the third judo world championship — Japanese athletes had won both previous titles — was a blow to Japan, where judo was developed as a form of self-defense in the 19th century.

“Japan took it as a reflection on the national honor when the world championship was won by a huge Hollander,” Robert Trumbull, the chief of The New York Times’s Tokyo bureau, wrote three years later, when Geesink was preparing to compete in Tokyo at the first Olympic Games to be held in Asia.
(Richard Goldstein. Anton Geesink, Dutch Judo World Champion, Dies at 76. The New York Times. August 31, 2010.)