閑話休題 ― Prince William of "Whales"??




個人情報流出でソニーの株価や如何に? ― take a hit


The bulk of attacks on corporate and governmental computer networks go unreported because victims want to avoid the embarrassment and public scrutiny that come with acknowledging that their systems have been hacked.

Companies fear that their stock price might take a hit or that their brand might be damaged after news of an intrusion, said Jerry Dixon, a former government official who was instrumental in setting up the U.S. government's crime-fighting Computer Emergency Readiness Team.
(Jim Finkle. What's so special about Sony's massive data breach? Reuters. April 29, 2011.)

"take a hit"の"hit"は野球で言う”ヒット”と同じですが、ここでは、”打撃”とか”損害”、”衝撃”という意味です。


Experts say that many companies only disclose break-ins when they are required to do so by government regulations that say they must tell customers whose data was compromised.

In many cases companies seek to keep the matter quiet by telling individual customers of the problem without issuing a public statement like the one from Sony this week. (bit.ly/kik7DC)



ちょっと一杯のつもりが・・・ ― tipple



Teenage dinnertime tipple 'leads to alcohol problems'

Middle-class parents who let their children have the odd glass of wine or bottle of beer at home when they are in their early teens are doing them more harm than good, a study finds today (THUR).

Many mothers and fathers think that allowing their children to have a supervised drink is a good way of exposing them to alcohol safely and taking away its illicit thrill.

But new research suggests it sends mixed signals that result in them being more likely to abuse alcohol as they enter their core teenage years.
(Stephen Adams. Teenage dinnertime tipple 'leads to alcohl problems'. The Telegraph. April 28, 2011.)

今日の単語、"tipple"はここでは名詞として使われています。"dinnertime tipple"とはいわゆる晩酌と言ってもよいかもしれません。

語源を見てみると、バーテンダーを意味する"tippler"という単語からの”逆成”(back formation)ということになっています。さらに、"tippler"は、"tip"という語に遡りますが、"tip"とは”傾くこと、倒れること”で、まさしく酔っ払いのことを指していると思われます。


ロイヤルウェディングの話題 ― tie the knot

本日もイギリスのロイヤルウェディングの話題ですが、”結婚する”という表現に、動詞"marry"の他に、"tie the knot"という表現があるのをご存知でしょうか?


For young couples who have never been married, cohabiting may seem like a hassle-free way of testing a relationship before tying the knot. And for those who already have been through a divorce, who have children or other significant assets, cohabiting may seem like a way to avoid costly legal entanglements if the relationship doesn't work out.
(Sharon Jayson. When unmarried couples split, complications follow. USA Today. April 27, 2011.)

上記記事はUSA Todayからのもので、ロイヤルウェディングとは関係ありません。いきなり結婚するか、あるいはしばらく同棲(cohabitation)してからにするか、という話なのですが、今日のアメリカ人にとって結婚というのは”重たい”もののようで、同棲というある意味試運転期間("test drive")を経るのがポピュラーなのでしょうか。

とにかく、"tie the knot"を決意するには相当の覚悟と言わんばかりです。"knot"には、”面倒なこと”という意味もあり、つい”結婚は人生の墓場”というのを思い出します。


The first of the floral decorations that will adorn Westminster Abbey when Prince William and Kate Middleton tie the knot in London have been lifted into place by a team of workmen.

A 20ft-high English field maple was hoisted into the abbey by five men.

The tree, which weighs more than half a ton and is 18 years old, will be part of an "avenue of trees" which will line the aisle leading to the altar.
(Trees for Abbey lifted into place. The Press Association. April 27, 2011.)


ロイヤルウェディングの話題 ― "a pretty girl and a good-looking bloke"


テレビを始めとするマスコミの報道はぶっ通し(wall-to-wall coverage)のようです。

Street parties are hardly likely to erupt, but with wall-to-wall television coverage on every network and a giant screen on Sydney harbour, the young royal's wedding to Kate Middleton will be hard to escape.

"I'm going to settle myself in front of the television at the requisite hour and pour myself a couple of drinks and cherish them and watch it," David Flint, head of Australians for a Constitutional Monarchy, told AFP.
(Amy Coopes. Royal wedding sidelines Australia republic drive. AFP. April 26, 2011.)


Even the staunchest republicans admit they will flick to the wedding "between football channels", but don't see curiosity about 'Wills and Kate' as anything more than celebrity hype about a "pretty girl and a good-looking bloke".




ソニー元社長の大賀氏が死去 ― bon vivant




さて、今日の単語は、"bon vivant"です。これは、”美食家”、”グルメ”という意味です。

スペルからも分かるようにフランス語ですが、"bon"は"good"、"vivant"は"to live"を意味します。”良く生きる”とは美味いものを食べることから、ということでしょうか。

TOKYO—Norio Ohga led development of the world's first compact disc and oversaw Sony Corp.'s evolution from a transistor-radio and tape-recorder manufacturer into a consumer-electronics and content giant encompassing music, movies and videogames.


A bon vivant who boasted of his cooking and learned to fly a jet plane, Mr. Ohga retained a passion for music after retiring as Sony president in 1995. He was chairman of the Tokyo Philharmonic Orchestra, where he occasionally took the podium.
(Daisuke Wakabayashi. Former Sony Head Pioneered First CD. The Wall Street Journal. April 25, 2011.)


ロイヤルウェディングの話題 ― fiance? それとも、fiancee?

昨日の記事で英国王室のウィリアム王子の結婚が記念切手になる話題を取り上げました。本日も同じ話題なのですが、BBC Newsのややゴシップ的、というか低俗の部類に入るような記事が目に留まりました。


With the big day nearing for Prince William and Kate Middleton, the internet is abuzz with royal wedding stories. As a confessed wedding obsessive, I'll be keeping up with what's being talked about. This week's round-up includes a royal bed, a lack of princess envy and lunch with the Queen.
(Brigitt Hauck. Royal wedding watch: Royal bed, princess envy and lunch. BBC News. April 22, 2011.)

"royal bed"、"princess envy"、"lunch with the Queen"の3つの話題があるようですが、とりわけ"royal bed"という表現には何となく下ネタ的なものがあります。

記事は以下のように続きます。下ネタに興味のある方は、"royal bed"の話題については記事を参照いただければと思いますが、ふと気になったのが、フィアンセを意味する単語"fiancee"のスペルです。

There's only one week left until the highly-anticipated wedding of Prince William and his fiancee Kate Middleton and, for those that have a royal crush, there might still be a shred of hope to cosy up to the duo.

The night before the nuptials, 28 April, may be the one and only time to get into bed with the future king and queen.




この原則に従うと、引用記事の、"Prince William and his fiancee"という部分は納得です。が、ここで少し意地悪な考えが浮かびましたので、コーパスを調べてみました。

原則に従うならば、正しくは、"his fiancée"であり、あるいは、"her fiancé"であるべきです。しかしながら、原則に従った用例が多数ではありますが、少なからず、"her fiancée"や"his fiancé"という用例も見られることが分かりました。



英国発: ロイヤルウェディングが切手に ― nuptial


With just over a week to go until the Royal Wedding, the Royal Mail has issued stamps to commemorate the event.

The stamps - featuring engagement pictures of Prince William and Kate Middleton by Mario Testino - are available from Post Office branches across the UK.

As with all commemorative Royal stamps, the Queen had to give her final approval for their issue - Prince William, the Royal Mail said, also approved the pictures.
(William And Kate 'Visit Diana's Grave'. Sky News. April 21, 2011.)



Choristers and clergy at the Royal Wedding venue used the Easter ceremony as a rehearsal for Prince William and Kate Middleton's nuptials in just over a week's time.



SNS時代の動詞 ― friend


Cara Drum allowed her son, Kevin, 13, to join Facebook recently, on three conditions: that he "friend" his mother, give her his password, and not accept friend requests until she approved them.

Kevin, who had switched schools and missed his friends, celebrated Facebook as a good way to keep in touch. After he finishes his homework, Kevin is allowed to check Facebook once every evening on the family computer, which sits in the middle of the kitchen.
(Kellie, B. Gormly. Parents monitor their kids' activity on Facebook. The Philadelphia Inquirer. April 20, 2011.)





Few kids are happy about their parents following them on social networking sites, he says. A search on Facebook illustrates this. Many anti-parent pages pop up, like "Ban Parents off Facebook" and "Parents Don't Need Facebook." One of the ways kids get around this awkward situation is by creating a separate Facebook account for their friends, unknown to their parents. They might use an alias. But that's just a high-tech version of a classic teenage thing.



お墨付き ― clean bill of health

"clean bill of health"、あるいは"bill of health"という成句があります。直訳するならば、健康の証明書、といったところでしょうか。実際、由来としては、主に船員の人が、乗船前に感染症その他に罹患していないことを証明するのが、"bill of health"というものだったということです。

同じ船というコミュニティでは病気を抱えている人がいると色々と困るわけで、"bill of health"はある人が同乗者にご迷惑をかけませんよ、という証明の意味合いとも言えるのだと思いますが、英語の成句としても発展して、いわゆる健康を証明する具体的な書類、といよりも、ある人の身元や適性などを保証する、という意味合いに発展したようです。



Parents believe the benefits of testing their children for the genetic risk of some diseases outweigh the negative consequences, according to US scientists.

In the study, published in the journal Pediatrics, parents who were offered a genetic test supported their children also being tested.


The report found that "parents offered the genetic susceptibility test for common preventable conditions tended to consider that the potential benefits of this test for their own child could outweigh its risks".

Professor Kenneth Tercyak, from the Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, said: "These tests usually don't offer a clean bill of health and can be hard to interpret even in the best scenario."
(Parents 'want child gene tests'. BBC News. April 18, 2011.)





Researchers have known for years that people with frontotemporal dementia — a type of dementia that affects the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain — often lose the ability to detect sarcasm and lies, while people who age normally don't experience this.

Because frontotemporal dementia affects regions of the brain involved in complex, higher-order processes like personality and behavior, patients may show certain striking symptoms like behaving in compulsive, socially inappropriate ways or suddenly changing religions. They also become gullible, as evidenced by the many patients who lose money to hucksters and scammers online.
(Amie Ninh. Failure to Detect Sarcasm or Lies: A Sign of a Rare Dementia. Time. April 15, 2011.)

frontotemporal dementia(前頭側頭型痴呆というらしいですが)になると詐欺に遭いやすくなる、というものですが、これは脳の中でも複雑で高次の認識や判断を担う領域の機能に問題が出てくるからだということです。



2つ目の"gull"をさらに遡ると中期英語(Middle English)の"gull"(to swallow ― つまり飲みこむ)に至るようです。(American Heritage Dictionary)




閑話休題 ― えいご1日1語は投稿500回を超えました!









第1位(71 ページビュー)
八百長 ― match-fixing(2011/02/03 投稿)

第2位(67 ページビュー)
知恵袋 ― pearls of wisdom(2011/02/28 投稿)

第3位(45 ページビュー)
Prius(プリウス)の複数形は?(2011/02/21 投稿)

荒らし ― troll(2011/01/19 投稿)



“おっぱい”は卑猥か? ― boob




Baby-pink ribbons, they are not. But a federal judge in Pennsylvania has ruled that “I ♥ Boobies” bracelets — worn as breast cancer awareness accessories — are not lewd, either, and overturned a ban on them at a public middle school there.
(Sarah Wheaton. Bands Promote Awareness, and Giggles, but Aren’t Lewd. The New York Times. April 14, 2011.)

乳がんに対する意識は日本でも高まっていますが、米国で乳がんの啓発のために作られた、"I love boobies"と刻印されたブレスレットが問題となったようです。



Kayla Martinez, 12, and Brianna Hawk, 13, received in-school suspensions at Easton Area Middle School after sporting the bracelets on the school’s breast cancer awareness day, Oct. 28 — a day after the ban was announced.

学校側は明らかに、"I love boobies"というブレスレットに刻印されたテキストに卑猥性を見ているようです。


ところが今回の件に関しては、司法の判断は、その逆で、"I love boobies"というメッセージには卑猥性が無い、と結論付けたようです。

In the 1986 case Bethel School District vs. Fraser, the Supreme Court ruled that public school administrators have the right to ban speech that is lewd or vulgar.

But Judge Mary A. McLaughlin, of United States District Court in Philadelphia, said the bracelets did not meet that standard.

In her ruling Tuesday, Judge McLaughlin rejected the district’s argument that the bracelets are lewd and vulgar, writing that “they can reasonably be viewed as speech designed to raise awareness of breast cancer and to reduce stigma associated with openly discussing breast health.”







Last week, FAA Administrator Randy Babbitt told a congressional panel that FAA is seeking to fire a controller in Knoxville, Tenn., who deliberately slept for five hours while he was supposed to be manning a radar facility that handles aircraft approaches for the Knoxville airport as well as several other smaller airports in the region. The lone controller on the midnight shift in the airport's tower wound up performing both his job of landing planes as well as the sleeping controller's job of handling approaches.
(Joan Lowy. FAA suspends more sleeping controllers. The Associated Press. April 13, 2011.)








講義で扱うのはご法度? ― F-word



A BRITISH teacher sacked by a Sydney college for presenting a class to adult students on the use of the "f-word" could be compensated after having his termination ruled illegal by Fair Work Australia.

Luke Webster lost his job after it was discovered he taught students at Mercury Colleges a worksheet that contained the swear word in every sentence and asked them to discuss its different meanings and whether it was being used as a verb or a noun.

The college's then director of studies, Andrew Waters, said the "highly offensive" actions of Mr Webster, who taught adult students whose first language was not English, were gross misconduct not acceptable at the college "or any workplace in Australia".
(Ewin Hannan. F-word teacher's sacking 'unjust'. The Australian. April 13, 2011.)

"F-word"とは、上記の引用部分にもあるように、"swear word"(相手をののしる言葉)です。アメリカ映画を観る人にはお馴染み(?)かも知れません。同記事中にもそのものずばりが出て来ません。従って、本ブログでもスペルアウトするのが憚られるのですが、記事の表現に習えば、"f - - k"という単語のことです。

ところで、筆者の経験では、この類の単語(つまり、人をののしるのに使われるような汚い表現)は、"four-letter word"と呼ばれると記憶します。"F-word"と同じようですが、"F-word"は”Fで始まる単語”、"four-letter word"は”4文字の単語”とすると、若干違います。

American Heritage Dictionaryによりますと、

Four-letter word
n. Any of several short English words generally regarded as vulgar or obscene.






角突き合わせ ― lock horns

”角突き合わせる”とは、対立する2者が激しく争っている様を表していますが、英語では"lock horns"といいます。


Microsoft And Google Lock Horns

Microsoft Corp. has taken its battle with Google over a key US government contract to an entirely new “bitter” territory by claiming that Google is misleading the government agencies by issuing false claims over the security features in its Google Apps for Government offering.

Google straight away rejected the allegations made by its rival by reassuring all the concerned sides about the security features being entirely full-proof.
(Ravi Mandalia. Microsoft And Google Lock Horns. ITProPortal.com. April 12, 2011.)


"Queen Bee syndrome"って何?



上司が女性で、あなた自身が女性ならば、下記の引用はBad Newsかも知れません。

FEMALE bosses make it harder, not easier, for women to gain promotions, a study into the "Queen Bee syndrome" has found.

The study found women who break through the "glass ceiling" in male-dominated industries tend to make career progression harder, not easier, for their female employees, The Daily Mail reports.

Men who report to a female boss get more mentoring and support than their female colleagues, the study of more than 2000 US employees, detailed in the journal Social Science Research, found.
(Female bosses less likely to help women workers get promotions, study finds. News.com.au. April 11, 2011.)

さて、"Queen Bee syndrome"という今日の単語ですが、最近の表現と思いきや、Wikipediaによると1970年代の造語でした。


”自粛”ムード ― self-restraint






It is cherry blossom season in Japan and the parks are filled with pink clouds of flowers, held up on the dark, dark trunks.

In a normal year the open space under the trees would be covered with blue tarpaulin sheets, every square inch taken up with people eating and drinking.

But in the face of calamity the Japanese have adopted a mood of self-restraint.

This is not the year for partying.

Just a handful of people were sitting under the cherry blossom in Tokyo's Ueno Park, and most were sombre.

"Before, the picnic blankets would entirely cover the ground," said one man. "And you'd hear people singing karaoke, even this early in the day."

"I think a lot of people would feel guilty about those affected by the disaster if they had fun and partied," added a woman.

A month after Japan's earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent nuclear crisis, the country has entered a period of what is known as jishuku, or voluntary self-restraint.
(Roland Buerk. Japanese unite in show of self-restraint. BBC News. April 8, 2011.)



4月です!新年度です ― freshman








Obama sounds and looks good. People are looking for a fresh new face because they are disgusted with both parties. But we live in too dangerous a world to experiment with a freshman senator whose chief policy position seems to be arguing over who first opposed the Iraq war.
(USA Today. 2007.)

"freshman senator"は、”一年生議員”とでも訳すべきものでしょうか。


Born in Whittier, Calif., he followed the various whistle-stops of his father's career: Whittier College (Richard Nixon's alma mater), Chicago Bears, Los Angeles Rams. Allen was a freshman quarterback at UCLA when his dad was named head coach of the Washington Redskins in 1971.
(Newsweek. 2005.)


食事中の方には済みません・・・ ― defecate


Police on the NSW Central Coast are seeking the public's help to find three "grubs" caught on CCTV defecating on local railway stations.

In the first incident, on January 30, a man dropped his pants and defecated on the stairs at Wyee train station between Gosford and Newcastle.

The second incident, February 12, involved another man emptying his bowels inside a ticket machine at Ourimbah railway station, north of Gosford.

Inspector Chris Wellfare, from Tuggerah Lakes Local Area Command, said: "This is a sickening and disgusting act and we are hoping someone will have information that will help us track down these grubs."

Police have released images of three males they believe will be of assistance in their enquiries. Anyone with information is urged to call 1800 333 000.
(Three wanted for defecating on train station. ninemsn.com.au. April 6, 2011.)





ヒマ ― shoot the breeze

"shoot the breeze"という成句があります。 "breeze"とは、“そよ風”のことです。


bat the breeze
fan the breeze




ちなみに、"bat the breeze"は“空振りをする”という意味でも用いられます。


Reporting from Tokyo— Hiroshi Miura and a dozen other taxi drivers dressed in crisp blue shirts were shooting the breeze in front of the quiet Tokyo Bay Hotel at dusk Saturday. They had one thing on their minds: "X Day." 

"That's the day Disney is going to reopen," said Miura, leaning against a buddy's black cab and lamenting how he has lost at least two-thirds of his fares since Tokyo Disneyland and Tokyo Disney Sea shut down after Japan's March 11 earthquake and tsunami. 

"They're going to post a notice five days before 'X Day' on their website announcing what day they are starting operations. We're all waiting." 

It's not just taxi drivers who have been suffering without the 70,000 customers that the Disney resorts in Japan attract each day on average. Many nearby hotels, restaurants and shopping centers sustained only minor damage in the quake but have seen a major drop-off in business, vividly illustrating the economic ripple effects of the disaster.
(Julie Makinen. A new theme at Tokyo Disney: hardship. The Los Angels Times. April 4, 2011.)


"shoot the breeze"には、“油を売る”とか、“無駄話をする”、“だべる”といった訳語も充てられています。



従来の ― tried-and-true





Among the casualties of the magnitude 9.0 earthquake on March 11 were modern communications networks, which proved surprisingly vulnerable. Millions of people in eastern and northern Japan, including Tokyo, lost some or all cellphone service. A total of 1.3 million land lines and fiber-optic links also went dead.

While those interruptions pale in comparison to the human tragedy of the earthquake and tsunami — 27,000 people are dead or missing — the fragility of modern communications has emerged as one of the catastrophe’s sobering lessons.

In a technology-crazed nation where many people were glued to cellphones and accustomed to the Internet’s nearly instantaneous access to information, being cut off has proved disorienting and frightening. Many local governments in the hardest-hit areas, desperate to reach residents with important emergency information, have reached into the past for more tried-and-true means of communication, including radios, newspapers and even human messengers.
(Martin Fackler. Quake Area Residents Turn to Old Means of Communication to Keep Informed. The New York Times. March 27, 2011.)






あれを英語で何と言う?(5) ― デマ




American Heritage Dictionaryによりますと、"demagogue"は、

1. A leader who obtains power by means of impassioned appeals to the emotions and prejudices of the populace.

2. A leader of the common people in ancient times.

とあり、"a leader"、つまり人のことを指しています。”扇動する”という役割を果たす点ではいわゆる”デマ”と意味するところは同じですが、我々日本人が言うところの”デマ”は、英語では"rumor"が適当なようです。

In the weeks following the tsunami, there have been relatively few documented reports of thievery in the devastated coastal cities of northeastern Japan. That's in contrast to widespread looting that has been reported after natural disasters in other countries.


But people are clearly worried. They're patrolling their own neighborhoods. There's a rumor circulating that the thieves are gaikokujin — foreigners.

Pernicious rumors in the aftermath of great disasters in this country have a historic precedent. After the Great Kanto earthquake of 1923, rumors that foreigners were poisoning wells and committing arson and robbery led to the mass murders of Koreans by Japanese mobs.
(John Burnett. In Japan, Scenes Of Much Destruction, Little Looting. NPR News. March 31, 2011.)