Scientists are studying the behavior of "SuperAgers" — defined by Northwestern as a rare group of elders who have the brains of people 30 years younger than them — to find out how humans can keep their memory sharp as they get older. 

Eating plants and whole foods, exercising regularly, and maintaining social bonds are all researched-backed ways to stay sharp in old age. 

But, perhaps surprisingly, the lifestyles of SuperAgers can vary widely, cognitive neuroscientist and SuperAgers researcher Emily Rogalski told Insider. Based on anecdotal data, Rogalski said some SuperAgers are "super exercisers," but others became more active later in life. The same goes for diet, Rogalski said some SuperAgers are health nuts while others admit to have eaten too many TV dinners growing up.
(Allana Akhtar. An 85-year-old 'SuperAger' with the memory of someone decades younger shares what keeps her mind sharp. Insider. December 24, 2022.)


all researched-backed ways to stay sharp in old age




違和感は、"research-backed"ではなく、"researched-backed"と、—ed - —edとなっている点にあります。


Each story offers practical, research-backed advice on matters such as how to promote greater collaboration through technology, how to work more effectively from home, and how to boost creativity with mental and physical breaks.
(Scientific American, 2016)

Try this simple, research-backed trick if you want to get ahead at work
(CNBC. October 28, 2021.)



To avoid distractions and reach peak at-home productivity, follow these researched-backed tips:
(Marguerite Ward. 3 science-backed ways to be more productive when you work from home. CNBC. March 14, 2017.)

They ask media to follow researched backed principles: report on the mindset, demographics and motives of the shooters, limit use of the shooter’s name to once per article, and never in headlines, and refuse to publish any of their self-serving material.
(Mass shooters crave notoriety. Here’s how media plays a major role in that. The Independent. July 13, 2022.)

It turns out, it’s a bit of a trick question to ask if it’s possible to eat like an Italian and be healthy. With a culinary heritage that effortlessly embraces researched-backed means of healthy eating, the more significant question seems to be, “How can we eat more like Italians?”
(Nicole Trilivas. Pasta, wine, cheese: Is it possible to eat like an Italian and stay healthy? Yahoo! News. April 2, 2018.)


敢えて取り上げるほどのものでもないようにも思われますが、"research-backed"や"science-backed"は、名詞(+ハイフン)+ backed、というパターンであり、研究、もしくはサイエンス(名詞)に裏付けられた(動詞backの過去分詞形)、ということですんなり頭に入ってくるのですが、"researched-backed"はハイフンで接続された語がいずれも動詞の過去分詞形であることから、奇異に感じられます。

こうした—ed - —ed、となるパターンをコーパスで検索してみましたが、理解を助けてくれるような事例を見つけることができませんでした。実のところ、"researched-backed"の用例も見当たらないことから、スペルミスの可能性も完全には否定できないところです。(検索の仕方に問題あり!?)


The first Humvee, an opened-backed vehicle with a mounted machine gun, carried seven Marines, a Navy corpsman and a handcuffed Iraqi detainee.
(USA Today, 2004)



in a pickle


The turkey has been eaten, the Christmas telly watched and the presents are unwrapped - and then disaster strikes.

There's something wrong with a gift you've bought or received.

If you've found yourself in a pickle over presents, then it's worth knowing your consumer rights.
(Dan Moore. WRAPPED UP: I’m a shopping expert – the six phrases you need to know to get refunds on Christmas presents. The Sun. December 26, 2022.)


in a pickle


"pickle"というのは、ピクルスのことで、酢や塩漬けにした野菜や魚の漬け物のことですが、"in a pickle"は、









Christmas was, and still is, a secular holiday in Japan -- a country where less than 1% of the population identifies as Christian -- and in the 1970s many people didn't have established family Christmas traditions.
(Kate Springer. How KFC became a Christmas tradition in Japan. CNN. December 22, 2022.)




secular holiday




Some reports say that Takeshi Okawara, who managed the country's first KFC and later became CEO of KFC Japan, falsely marketed fried chicken as a traditional American Christmas food to drum up sales.

But according to KFC Japan, Okawara went to a Christmas party dressed as Santa. When the kids loved it, he saw a business opportunity.





Now Musk is threatening to call it quits. This must not happen.

In an online poll, Musk asked the Twitterverse whether he should "step down" as head of Twitter, and promised to abide by the outcome. He tweeted soon after the launch of the referendum: "As the saying goes, be careful what you wish, as you might get it."

The bad news for Musk fans is that 57% of the 17 million people who participated said he should indeed quit his post; 43% said he should not. 

Will the quixotic entrepreneur follow through, and abandon his $44 billion undertaking? Will he allow the Leftist thought police to resume their control of what Americans can see and read? 
(Liz Peek. Elon Musk should remain Twitter CEO to keep up the free speech fight. Fox News. December 19, 2022.)


引用した記事は1週間ほど前の保守系メディアFox Newsのオピニオン記事で、マスク氏の続投を支持するものです。


the quixotic entrepreneur

と形容していますが、"quixotic"という形容詞はスペイン文学史上の傑作であるセルバンテス作の「ドン・キホーテ」(Don Quixote)から来ています。つまり、作品の主人公であるドン・キホーテのような性格を持った、という意味です。



foolishly impractical especially in the pursuit of ideals
especially: marked by rash lofty romantic ideas or extravagantly chivalrous action





Happy Kwanzaa!



Happy holidays!

です。かつては"Merry Christmas!"でしたが、キリスト教以外の宗教を信じる人々に対して押し付けにならない、万人向けの挨拶として定着した感があります。



Happy Kwanzaa!


Twitter grilled Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, D-Calif., on Friday for wishing people a "Happy Shwanza," instead of "Kwanzaa" during remarks closing out the House’s vote on the "omnibus" spending bill.

After the 4,155-page, $1.7 trillion bill passed in the House of Representatives Friday, Pelosi decided to close out the session of Congress by wishing happy holidays to several different groups celebrating this time of year, including one that doesn’t exist.

In her sign off – which she claimed "will probably be my last speech as Speaker of the House" – Pelosi said, "I yield back the balance of my time and wish everyone a happy, healthy and safe New Year. Happy Holidays. Merry Christmas. Happy Shwanza. Happy Hanukah."
(Gabriel Hays. Pelosi mocked for wishing Americans a 'Happy Shwanza' during final speech as House Speaker: 'Shawarma?' Fox News. December 23, 2022.)

私はこの"Kwanzaa"という行事を知りませんでしたが、引用した記事のおかげで(つまり、ペロシ下院議長の失言のおかげで!?)、スワヒリ語で"first fruit"(果実の初物)を意味するというこの単語を知る事となりました。

Merriam-Webster Dictionaryによれば、Maulana Karengaというアフリカ系アメリカ人研究者が1966年に提唱したのが始まりだそうです。


collective responsibility, 
cooperative economics, 
and faith.
(Merriam-Webster Dictionary)








Media influencers on both the right and the left broke out into heated debate over Ukraine President Volodymyr Zelenskyy’s choice of attire for his trip to Washington this week.

Zelenskyy visited the White House and Congress on Wednesday, during which he met with President Biden and gave a televised address to Congress, asking for continued military and financial assistance against Russia's invasion.

The Ukrainian leader — who has also been named TIME's 2022 "Person of the Year" — was wearing his trademark military fatigues, in contrast to the usual suit-and-tie worn by male White House visitors.

Turning Point USA founder Charlie Kirk criticized Zelenskyy for improper decorum: "If you speak in front of Congress you should wear a suit and tie. I don’t care if you are a CIA plant."

A popular liberal influencer jumped into the Twitter brawl to defend Zelenskyy: "When a dude is fighting for his life and his country under dire circumstances, I'm pretty sure nobody cares if he's wearing a suit or not. Nobody decent."
(Twitter gets heated over Zelenskyy's outfit choice: 'Does he even own a suit?' Fox News. December 22, 2014.)


improper decorum






alive and kicking



Ukraine's President Volodymyr Zelenskyy landed in the U.S. on Wednesday in what is his first known trip outside his home country since Russia invaded the now war-torn nation in February.


"Against against all odds, and doom and gloom scenarios, Ukraine didn't fall. Ukraine is alive and kicking," Zelenskyy told Congress to round after round of applause.

"We have no fear. Nor should anyone in the world have it," he said in a speech filled with memorable lines and standing ovations.
(Ukraine war live updates: Zelenskyy gives historic address to U.S. Congress as Biden pledges to help 'as long as it takes'. CNBC. December 21, 2022.)


Ukraine is alive and kicking


"alive and kicking"というのは口語表現で、元気である、という意味ですが、辞書を引いてみると、ピンピンしている、矍鑠(かくしゃく)としている、という日本語が見えました。

なるほど、"alive and well"という表現に比べると、"alive and kicking"の"kicking"には、よりバイタリティーを感じさせるニュアンスというか、響きがありますね。





Stanford University published an index of "harmful language" it plans to eliminate from the school’s websites and computer code, offering terms to be used as replacements.

The Elimination of Harmful Language Initiative, which was revealed in May, is a "multi-phase, multi-year project to address harmful language in IT at Stanford," according to the guide.

The guide says its goal is to eliminate "many forms of harmful language," including "racist, violent, and biased (e.g., disability bias, ethnic bias, ethnic slurs, gender bias, implicit bias, sexual bias) language" in Stanford websites and code. It added that it strives to educate people on the impact of words.
(Landon Mion. Stanford releases guide to eliminate 'harmful language,' cautions against calling US citizens 'American'. Fox News. December 20, 2022.)

例えば、アメリカ合衆国民を指すのに"American"というのはNGで、"US citizens"が正しい、といったものだそうです。


Other terms deemed harmful in this section include "abort," which offers the replacement of "cancel" or "end," because of moral concerns about abortion; "child prostitute" is replaced with a "child who has been trafficked," so the person is not defined by just one characteristic; and "Karen" is replaced with "demanding or entitled White woman."




Earlier this week Domino's Pizza had to issue an apology over a promotion it ran in Australia and New Zealand, offering free pizza to "nice Karens".

The company didn't pick out the name Karen at random. "Karen" has, in recent years, become a widespread meme referencing a specific type of middle-class white woman, who exhibits behaviours that stem from privilege.

To give some examples, "Karen" is associated with the kind of person who demands to "speak to the manager" in order to belittle service industry workers, is anti-vaccination, and carries out racist micro-aggressions, such as asking to touch black people's hair.
(Ashita Nagesh. What exactly is a 'Karen' and where did the meme come from? BBC News. July 30, 2020.)


ところで、同じロジックで行くと、"lazy Susan"や"plain Jane"、"Negative Nancy"も言い換えが必要のように思いますがどうなんでしょう!?


right horse, wrong horse



Twitter users have voted in favour of Elon Musk stepping down as the platform's chief executive after the billionaire ran a poll on his future.

A total of 57.5% voted "yes" after Mr Musk asked his 122 million followers whether he should stand down.

Mr Musk, who bought Twitter for $44bn (£36bn), said before the poll closed that he would abide by the result.


In the past Mr Musk has obeyed Twitter polls. He's fond of quoting the phrase "vox populi, vox dei", a Latin phrase which roughly means "the voice of the people is the voice of God".
(Elon Musk: Twitter users vote in favour of boss resigning. BBC News. December 18, 2022.)



A former Twitter member of staff, who left the company recently, told the BBC that Mr Musk was "showing himself to be the incompetent fool we all knew he was".

Speaking on condition of anonymity, they added: "His investors are surely looking at this now and questioning whether he was the right horse to back."


questioning whether he was the right horse to back



さて、ここで、"right horse to back"という表現が出てきますが、

back the wrong horse


"back the wrong horse"とは、競馬で負けてしまう馬にお金を賭けてしまうことを言います。つまり、失敗した、判断を誤った、という意味合いです。





put the genie in the bottle



Workers cite time savings as among the most significant factors in favor of remote work — it means they have no commute, more flexible work schedules and less time getting ready for work.


Further, worker retention improves among businesses that offer remote work, and the dynamic allows employers to recruit talent from across the country instead of a narrow geographic pool, said Julia Pollak, chief economist at ZipRecruiter.

"People really, really want remote work," Pollak said, adding: "It's difficult to put the genie back in the bottle."
(Greg Iacurci. Why labor economists say the remote work 'revolution' is here to stay. CNBC. December 1, 2022.)



It's difficult to put the genie back in the bottle.

というコメントが出てくる訳ですが、ここで使われている、"put the genie back in the bottle"というフレーズをご存知でしょうか?

"the genie"というのは"jinn"(もしくは、jinni)とも綴られることもありますが、イスラム神話に出てくる精霊のことで、人間に益や害をもたらすといわれている存在のことです。その精霊をボトルに戻す(putting back in the bottle)ということなのですが、ここでの「ボトル」とは、多くの人にお馴染みの、「アラジンと魔法のランプ」のお話しに出てくる「魔法のランプ」のことであると解するのがもっぱらのようです。



英和辞書には載っていないようですが、手元にあるCollins Cobuild Dictionary of Idiomsにエントリがありました。

If something has been done or created which has made a great and permanent change in people’s lives, especially a change which people regret, you can say that the genie is out of the bottle or that someone has let the genie out of the bottle.

People often vary this expression, for example by saying that you cannot put the genie back in the bottle.


以下引用する記事はサッカーワールドカップのカタール大会についての記事からで、"put the genie back in the bottle"というフレーズの応用とでも言うべき用例です。

“How do you put human rights back in the bottle?” Kidd, who ran for Canada at the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo, added. “How do you put LGBTQIA++ rights back in the bottle?”

You can’t. Nor should you. Which is why the IOC cannot be swayed by a Doha bid or the promises that will come with it.  
(Nancy Armour. Don't be fooled, IOC. Qatar has proven it isn't deserving of Olympic Games | Opinion. USA Today. December 17, 2022.)




ロシアのプーチン大統領が"Bellend of the Year"に選ばれた、という見出しに釣られました。

ところで、"Bellend of the Year"って、何?

この時期、"Word of the Year"はよく見かけますが、"Bellend of the Year"の"bellend"とは何んぞや?

Vladimir Putin has been hailed “Bellend of the Year” by a group of English villagers – who marked his endowing by erecting a golden, penis-headed statue of the Russian president.

The effigy, put up in protest against Moscow’s nine-month invasion of Ukraine, appeared on Thursday morning alongside a street sign in the centre of the Worcestershire village.

Eggs were provided to villagers and passers-by which could be thrown at the likeness of the Russian president.
(Emily Atkinson. UK village names Putin ‘Bellend of the Year’ and unveils penis-headed statue. The Independent. December 16, 2022.)

"bellend"を辞書で引いてみますが、載っていません。Merriam-Websterにも載っていないので、色々検索してみると、"bellend"というのは男性器の先端部を表現するイギリス英語の俗語だとか。解剖学的にはglans penis(日本語で「亀頭」)というそうです。

さて、ウクライナ侵攻により、世界的な危機をもたらしているプーチン大統領に与えられたという"Bellend of the Year"が強烈な皮肉であることは明らかです。



イギリス西部に位置するウスターシャー(Worcestershire)にあるこの村は"Bell End"という地名で、"bellend"は"Bell End"、つまりベル(鐘)の形に見える先端部との連想から生まれた俗語でした。





Kylian Mbappe vs. Lionel Messi.

Soccer’s latest superstar against perhaps the sport’s greatest player in the World Cup final just about everyone was hoping for.

France and Mbappe are headed back to the biggest game in soccer, and to a much-anticipated matchup with Argentina, after ending Morocco’s historic run at the World Cup on Wednesday.
(France secures second straight World Cup final berth with win over Morocco. Associated Press. December 14, 2022.)



France secures second straight World Cup final berth with win over Morocco

にありますが、"final berth"という表現に着目したいと思います。

決勝戦を言うのに、単に"final"、もしくは"final stage"、"final match"などはよく聞きますが、"final berth"というのは見慣れないですね。


この余地(スペース)という意味は船舶に限らず、自動車にも敷衍され、駐車・停車スペースも意味するようになったようですが、もうひとつの意味として、船舶内の船室(つまり居住スペース)があり、これも船に限らず、列車などの寝台、つまり寝床を意味するようになります。(sleeping berth、a first-class sleeper berth、等。)

さらには、働き口、(仕事上の)地位という意味でも用いられ、そうした意味合いではほとんど"position"や"place"と同義となっています。(Merriam-Webster Dictionary)

恐らくはこのような語義の発展から、スポーツのコンテクストでも用いられる"berth"は、上記引用に見られる"final berth"の他、

playoff berth
tournament berth
quarterfinal berth
all-star berth
Olympic berth




ward of the state


Victoria Police have announced a $1 million dollar reward for information about the disappearance and likely murder of a teenager in Melbourne's outer north-east 22 years ago.

Cherie Westell, 15, was last seen in Wantirna South on December 12, 2000, when she was dropped off for a dental appointment.

She phoned a family member from a public phone box to say she was going to catch a train home to Ringwood, but never arrived.

Police say a missing person report was not filed until five days later.

Cherie was a ward of the state and her foster mother was told only a biological family member could make a police report.
(Detectives hopeful a million dollar reward will help solve long-running case of missing Cherie Westell. ABC News. December 14, 2022.)


ward of the state

と補足があります。この"ward of the state"という表現を知りませんでした。

"ward"とは、保護とか監督の意味ですが、"ward of the state"は法律用語で、被後見人のことで、何らかの事情により、両親以外の人から後見を受けている未成年者を指します。

"ward of the court"とも言うそうです。





Transportation Secretary Pete Buttigieg, an advocate of increased government action to curb carbon emissions, has taken at least 18 flights using taxpayer-funded private jets since taking office, Fox News Digital has learned.

Buttigieg has traveled across the country — visiting Florida, Ohio and New Hampshire, among other states — and out of the country using a private jet fleet managed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), according to flight tracking data reviewed by Fox News Digital. 


"Everyday Americans face flight [cancellations] and long wait times because Transportation Secretary Pete Buttigieg has completely mismanaged air travel," APT executive director Caitlin Sutherland told Fox News Digital. "Yet, he gets to avoid all that by taking taxpayer-funded private jets to destinations with readily available commercial airline options."

"And for someone so holier-than-thou on reducing emissions, Buttigieg sure doesn’t seem to mind the pollution caused by his literal jet-setting," she continued. "This is hypocrisy at its finest, and these troubling expenses to taxpayers must come under immediate scrutiny."
(Thomas Catenacci. Pete Buttigieg often flies on taxpayer-funded private jets, flight data show. Fox News. December 12, 2022.)












cold snap




原因は、"cold snap"ということですが、これは急な冷え込み、寒波のことです。

Further travel disruption is expected this week with temperatures forecast to stay well below freezing overnight, and up to 10cm of snow forecast in the south-east of England.


Rail travellers in the south-west of England were told to expect delays, revisions and cancellations on Monday, after train operator South Western cancelled numerous services on Sunday because of icy conditions.

In Essex, flights at Stansted airport were suspended after the runway was closed on Sunday evening to clear the snow.
(More travel delays expected with UK cold snap set to continue. The Guardian. December 11, 2022.)


"cold snap"は家計にも影響を及ぼしています。

The recent cold snap has led to the triggering of the £25 cold weather payment to people on the lowest incomes in hundreds of affected postcode districts in England and Wales.

"cold snap"の"snap"には、噛み付いたり、折ったり、ムチで叩いたり、罵ったり、はたまた抜き打ちだったり、といった意味があります。




“The UK increasingly looks like a lackadaisical global outlier that is determined to interfere in business and drive away investment.”
(Alana Calvert. James Dyson condemns government plan to extend work-from-home rights. The Independent. December 8, 2022.)

いきなり引用から入りましたが、発言は日本でも有名な掃除機のメーカーダイソンの創業者、James Dyson氏の言葉です。


Billionaire businessman Sir James Dyson has condemned government plans to extend employees’ rights to work from home as “economically illiterate and staggeringly self-defeating”.

The founder and chief engineer of Singapore-based multinational technology company Dyson said the move would “hamper employers’ ability to organise their workforce”.





こんなこと、つまり政府が企業のイノベーションの芽を摘んでしまうようなことをやっていては、イギリスはますます"a lackadaisical global outlier"になってしまう、ということですが、"lackadaisical"という形容詞にはあまり馴染みがないのではないでしょうか。





で、"lackaday"とは何を指すのかというと、これは"alackaday"(=alack =ah lack) の頭のa-が脱落したもので、いわゆる頭音消失、意味は、ああ、悲しいかな、と悲嘆に暮れる人が呟く表現なのだそうです。




blue zone



There are some daily practices that may increase your chances of living to 90 and beyond – and a healthy diet is one of the most important factors on the list.

In his new book, "The Blue Zones American Kitchen: 100 Recipes to Live to 100," Dan Buettner "identified the world's longest-lived areas (blue zones) and studied the patterns and lifestyles that seem to explain their populations' longevity."
(Renée Onque. People who live to 100 don't eat like typical Americans: Here are 'the 5 pillars of a longevity diet'. CBS News. December 6, 2022.)



The Blue Zones American Kitchen: 100 Recipes to Live to 100


ここで、"Blue Zone"とは一体何ぞやという疑問が。


Blue zones are defined by Buettner as populations with the highest rates of living to 100 – or becoming centenarians – and the highest middle-age life expectancies. 


"The people in the blue zones live up to a decade longer than average Americans and spend a fraction of what most [of] the rest of us do on health care," Buettner wrote.

"Blue zones"という言葉は老年学の研究者が作った言葉だそうで、100歳人口が多い地域を言うそうです。

"Blue zones"にはイタリアやコスタリカ、ギリシャなどの都市の他、日本では沖縄が入っています。

さて、寿命の長い都市、地域を"Blue zones"、つまり青色とする発想はどこからくるのでしょうか。

青色に対比されるのは赤色(red)であと思いますが、"Red zones"というと、危険、危機というイメージがありますね。




goblin mode

先日、Collins DictionaryのWord of the Year 2022を取り上げたところですが、今日はOxford University PressによるWord of the Yearが発表されていました。

2022年のWord of the Yearに選出されたのは、

goblin mode


The existence of the term “goblin mode” had somehow escaped me until last month, when it appeared on the Oxford English Dictionary compilers’ shortlist for word of the year. It also seemed to have escaped The Irish Times archive, in which it hereby makes its debut.

But the phrase was already sufficiently popular in certain places that it has since beaten the other word-of-2022 candidates, “metaverse” and the hashtag “IStandWith”, to win a public vote of OED readers.


People in goblin mode were and remain typically sitting on the sofa, slightly drunk or eating pizza, or both, while wearing pyjamas.
(Frank McNally. Going Goblin – Frank McNally on the slovenly rise of ‘goblin mode’. Irish Times. December 6, 2022.)

Oxford Dictionaryの定義では以下のようになっています。

Goblin mode
Goblin mode’ – a slang term, often used in the expressions ‘in goblin mode’ or ‘to go goblin mode’ – is ‘a type of behaviour which is unapologetically self-indulgent, lazy, slovenly, or greedy, typically in a way that rejects social norms or expectations.’



“goblin mode”、“going goblin (mode)”という言い回しは2009年頃からSNSで流行したそうです。その後、パンデミック下、ロックダウンの生活を余儀無くされる中でこの言葉が再び流行したことが今年の単語に選出された背景にあります。


「当たり前」を“normal mode”とすれば、“goblin mode”はその対極にある生活態度ということになるでしょうか。


現代は“normal mode”と“goblin mode”という2つのモードを使い分ける時代なのかも知れません。





Socceroos players have returned to a heroes’ welcome at a packed Sydney airport, with fans clapping and cheering for the players after a historic run to the knockout stages at the World Cup.

About a quarter of the squad that lost valiantly to Argentina in the round of 16 arrived back in Sydney on Monday night, with another contingent landing in Melbourne.

Supporters carrying signs and flags chanted and stomped for the players, creating a ruckus to welcome back a squad that had captured the heart of the country.
(Mostafa Rachwani. Cheering crowds welcome home Australia’s World Cup Socceroo heroes. The Guardian. December 5, 2022.)


選手はSoccer playerですが、"Socceroos (players)"という変わったスペルの単語が見られますね?



日本代表を指す"Samurai Blue"も格好良いですが、"Socceroos"もユニークですね。



take foot off the gas


The Biden administration has declared an end to the public health emergency for the disease formerly known as monkeypox, which now accounts for fewer than 10 new cases a day in the United States. 

The Department of Health and Human Services announced Friday that it does not expect to need to renew the emergency declaration when it ends on Jan. 31, 2023.

"But we won’t take our foot off the gas – we will continue to monitor the case trends closely and encourage all at-risk individuals to get a free vaccine," Secretary Xavier Becerra said in a prepared statement. 
(Karen Weintraub. Where did mpox go? Here's what brought down cases of disease formerly known as monkeypox. USA Today. December 3, 2022.)




we won’t take our foot off the gas – we will continue to monitor the case trends closely




take one’s foot off the gas

はその逆で、アクセルペダル("gas"、"gas pedal")から足を離す、つまり減速する、ということで、手を緩める、これまで行ってきた対策を緩和する、という意味です。


clear up






Graeme Souness has called upon FIFA to release conclusive evidence the ball stayed in play in the incident which led to Japan's dramatic winner against Spain and knocked out Germany.

Ao Tanaka completed a stunning turnaround from a Kaoru Mitoma cut-back which initially appeared to have gone out of play. A lengthy VAR check followed the goal, but it sensationally ruled in favour of Japan, the full curvature of the ball not deemed to have crossed the line.

Japan's victory meant they finished top of Group E, with Spain second and Germany, who beat Costa Rica 4-2 in a thriller, sent packing. But with replays of the incident appearing inconclusive, Sky Sports' Souness demanded FIFA showed their evidence for making the decision.
(Graeme Souness questions VAR decision and calls for proof from FIFA over dramatic Japan goal against Spain which knocked out Germany. Sky News. 



9.1 Ball out of play

The ball is out of play when:
it has wholly passed over the goal line or touchline on the ground or in the air



"Germany is not a small footballing nation. Why would you create confusion and not want to clear it up immediately?

"Why are FIFA not showing us something that is so controversial? Why aren't they showing it to us? Clear it up for us, please."

"clear up"(はっきりさせて欲しい)、とはFIFAに向けられた要望です。


That bit of green between ball and line does not matter. By rule, the ball is only out of play when the entirety of it has fully cleared the plane of the boundary.

In other words, if you were to draw a line perpendicular to the ground — straight up from the end line toward the sky — and that vertical line intersects with any part of the ball, the ball is still in play.

Camera angles that offered a bird’s eye view seemed to show that the ball hadn’t done this; that a sliver of it still hovered above a sliver of the line.
(Henry Bushnell. World Cup 2022: Why Japan’s controversial goal vs. Spain stood despite appearing to go out of play. Yahoo! News. December 2, 2022.)


ということで、"Clear up, please!"


cop out


故エリザベス女王に仕え、今はカミラ王妃の侍女であるSusan Hussey氏は、王妃主催のパーティーの招かれていた女性に対して出自をしつこく尋ねるなどしたそうです。女性が抗議、差別発言を含む詳細なやり取りが公開される中、Hussey氏は辞任。招待客は慈善団体の代表で、黒人でした。

The late Queen’s longest-serving lady-in-waiting resigned on Wednesday after being accused of “interrogating” a Buckingham Palace guest about where she was “really” from.

Lady Susan Hussey, who had stayed on in an honorary role to support the new King, was said to have made “unacceptable and deeply regrettable comments” to a black, British-born domestic violence campaigner after asking her “what part of Africa” she was from.
(Queen Elizabeth's aide, Lady Susan Hussey, resigns amid racism row. The Telegraph. November 30, 2022.)



For the avoidance of doubt: allowing Lady Hussey to resign, muttering hollow apologies and effectively writing this off as an isolated incident would be a total cop-out from the palace where inequalities are baked into its very core.
(Nadine White. Is anyone really surprised by racist remarks at the palace? The Independent. November 30, 2022.)


a total cop-out from the palace






この"cop"から"cop-out"の意味合いには結び付きにくいのですが、"cop out"には、止める、手を引く、という意味があり、責任逃れ、という意味につながるようです。


COP27 is a cop out
(The Ecologist. November 19, 2022.)



以前取り上げた、"cop"、"cop to"、"cop a squat"もご覧下さい。