London (CNN Business) — Icelandic budget carrier Wow Air has ceased operations and canceled its flights, leaving passengers stranded on both sides of the Atlantic.

The airline announced the closure in a statement posted to its website on Thursday. It advised passengers to book new flights on other airlines, and said some may be eligible for compensation.


It wasn't until Thursday morning that she received an email from Wow Air informing passengers that the airline had ceased operations and all flights were canceled.

Other affected passengers also criticized Wow Air on social media over the lack of communication.

"Just found out about this news," tweeted Jonathan Koo, who was stuck at Newark Liberty Airport after his flight was canceled. "They didn't even notify any of us directly, had to find out from twitter and reddit."

A second passenger described "pandemonium at the gate" as he waited for the same flight in Newark. Others tweeted photos of crowds as passengers tried to find out what to do.
(Wow Air ceases operations, leaving passengers stranded. CNN. March 28, 2019.)








この単語は17世紀の作家ミルトンが、聖書の創世記を題材に書いた「失楽園」(Paradise Lost)において、悪魔達が住む巣窟の名前として使ったのが最初です。


throw the book


The young woman who went viral last year after she was caught on camera pushing her friend off a 60-foot bridge in Washington state was finally sentenced this week after pleading guilty to reckless endangerment.

Taylor Smith, 19, will have to spend two days in jail and more than a month on a local work detail for the August 2018 incident — which left her 16-year-old pal with a bruised esophagus, punctured lungs and shattered ribs.


The teen had previously said that she wanted the book thrown at Smith, but instead, prosecutors chose to offer her a plea deal.

“At first I didn’t really want Taylor to get into trouble,” Holgerson told NBC last August. “But now that I’ve thought about it more, I’m kind of wanting her to sit in jail and think about at least what she did.”
(Chris Perez. Teen who pushed friend off 60-foot bridge gets two days in jail. New York Post. March 27, 2019.)

Taylor Smith被告はまだ未成年の19歳ですが、悪ふざけでやったのでしょうか。年下の友人は突き落とされたために肋骨を折るなどの重傷を負い、悪ふざけでは済まないことになりました。


The teen had previously said that she wanted the book thrown at Smith, but instead, prosecutors chose to offer her a plea deal.


throw the book at (person)






この成句の起源についてはよく分かりませんが、"book"というのは法律書のことを指しており、つまりは法律書に書かれているあらゆる刑罰、最も厳しい刑罰を与える、という意味で"throw the book~"となったというような説を見かけます。







Some words can be infuriating – and 'GOAT' – tops the list of America's most annoying slang terminology in 2019.

An abbreviation for 'Greatest of All Time,' GOAT is followed by 'bae,' 'hangry,' 'Gucci' and 'ghost' as the top five most annoying slang words in the American lexicon, according to a new survey.

Researchers at OnePoll talked to 2,000 U.S. adults to determine which words are the most irritating, when slang is acceptable – and who should avoid it altogether.
(Valerie Bauman. Revealed: The most annoying modern slang words and phrases that Americans would like to 'ghost.' Daily Mail. March 26, 2019.)




informal : to abruptly cut off all contact with (someone, such as a former romantic partner) by no longer accepting or responding to phone calls, instant messages, etc.
(Merriam-Webster Dictionary)





Kaspersky Lab reported that one of the world’s largest computer manufacturers, Taiwan-based ASUS, had mistakenly installed a backdoor program dubbed “ShadowHammer” onto the computers of thousands of customers after hackers infiltrated the company’s automated software update system.

Experts offering initial estimates suggest the trojanized update may have affected up to half a million Windows machines. Kaspersky reported 57,000 users of ASUS’s product were attacked, “but we estimate it was distributed to about 1 million people total.”
(Dell Cameron. Hackers Snuck Backdoors Into ASUS Software Updates, Infecting Thousands. Gizmodo. March 25, 2019.)



Hackers Snuck Backdoors Into ASUS Software Updates, Infecting Thousands




American Heritage Dictionaryの"sneak"のエントリでは、この単語の過去形、過去分詞形としての"snuck"について、Usage Noteが記載されています。




ドアコック ― cock








emergency door-handle




A faucet or valve by which the flow of a liquid or gas can be regulated.
(American Heritage Dictionary)

これは栓や弁、バルブのことを言っていますが、機構としては恐らく電車の非常用ドアコックが持つものとして適当だと思われ、"door cock"という英語もあり得るものと思われます。


弁やバルブを操作する「ハンドル」の意味が加わった背景は定かではありませんが、その形状が鶏を想起させた可能性も言われています。(Online Etymology Dictionary)


グーグルの画像検索で"door cock"を検索すると、人前では大変なこと(NSFW)になりますから、要注意!!

結局のところ、電車内の「非常ドアコック」の英訳が"door cock"ではなく、"door-handle"となっているのは、スラングとしての"cock"を避けたのではないのか、というのが小生の推測です。




A deranged panhandler pleaded guilty Wednesday in Manhattan court for hitting a straphanger in the face with a metal pipe when the man refused to give him money.


Nieves broke Michael Vansluytman’s eye socket and fractured his skull. The victim, a 59-year-old MTA worker, was on a southbound No. 2 train near Chambers Street when the crazed beggar approached him in the car.

When Vansluytman said he didn’t speak Spanish, Nieves flew into a violent rage, smashing the stranger in the face with the pipe.
(Rebecca Rosenberg. Panhandler accused of bashing man with pipe gets seven years in prison. New York Post. March 20, 2019.)








postpartum depression

米国の厚生当局である連邦医薬食品局(FDA)が、産後うつ病(postpartum depression)の治療薬を承認したと発表しました。

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved a drug meant to specifically treat postpartum depression in mothers, a first for the agency.

The FDA announced in a news release Tuesday that it approved an intravenous infusion of brexanolone, a drug labeled as Zulresso. Patients would receive a continuous IV drip over 60 hours. The news release said clinical trials, which involved more than 200 women, showed brexanolone worked within hours to help treat postpartum depression, which affects 1 in 9 new mothers.

Postpartum depression is much more severe and longer-lasting than the “baby blues” many new mothers experience for about a week after giving birth. Symptoms of postpartum depression can include sadness, loss of interest, difficulty bonding with the baby and even suicidal thoughts.
(Sanjana Karanth. FDA Approves First Drug Targeted At Treating Postpartum Depression. The Huffington Post. March 19, 2019.)

出産を経験する9人に1人が経験するという産後うつ病(postpartum depression; PPDとも略されるそうです)に対する治療薬はこれまでに無く、今回静注で提供される薬剤は史上初のものとなります。









The ability to sense the Earth’s magnetic field — a trait known as magnetoreception — is well documented among many animals, but researchers have struggled to show that humans are also capable of the feat. Until now.

New experimental evidence published today in the science journal eNeuro suggests the human brain is capable of responding to the Earth’s magnetic field, though at an unconscious level. It’s not clear if our apparent ability to sense the magnetic field is in any way useful, as it’s likely a vestigial trait left over from our more primitive past. Giving the new finding, however, researchers should investigate further to determine if magnetoreception is somehow contributing to our behavior or abilities, such as spatial orientation.
(George Dvorsky. Some Humans Can Sense Earth’s Magnetic Field, Fascinating Experiment Suggests. Gizmodo. March 18, 2019.)



vestigial trait




The third time's the charm



UK Prime Minister Theresa May will be hoping the third time's the charm when she tries to get the House of Commons to back her Brexit deal this week after two previous defeats -- but she'll need more than just luck to get lawmakers to change their minds.

The question being posed in Downing Street this week is: What will it take for more than 70 lawmakers to back her and get her deal over the line? And does that plea bargain include the Prime Minister promising to step aside within weeks in return for more votes from her own Conservative side?

This suggestion is gaining ground in Westminster. On BBC radio yesterday, former Cabinet minister Esther McVey called on May to announce a "dignified departure" from No. 10 and to make way for a new Prime Minister whom, she argued, would be more enthusiastic about the UK making a clean break from the European Union. This view is shared by an increasing number of Conservative MPs (members of Parliament).
(Jane Merrick. Third time lucky for Theresa May's Brexit vote? CNN. March 18, 2019.)



the third time's the charm



third time lucky



ちなみに、"the third time's~"の、"'s"(アポストロフィ、プラスs)は、isを略したものです。("The third time is the charm")

"the charm"ではなく、"a charm"となっている場合もあります。


honest services



報道では、これら関係者が"mail fraud"、"honest services mail fraud"といった罪に問われていると報道しているのですが、法律用語故か聞きなれない表現で、また具体的によく分かりません。

Despite an acting career that stretches back to the 1980s, Lori Loughlin never made headlines like she did on Tuesday when she and dozens of others were busted by the feds as part of a nationwide college admissions cheating scam.


Loughlin faces charges of conspiracy to commit mail fraud and honest services mail fraud, NBC News reported. According to court docs, she was allegedly caught openly discussing the scam in phone calls recorded by the FBI.
(Bryan Hood. College admissions scandal: Who are ‘Full House’ star Lori Loughlin’s children? Page Six. March 12, 2019.)

"fraud"という単語は分かりますね?「詐欺」と訳されますから、"mail fraud"は郵便(mail)による詐欺(fraud)ということになりますが、不正入学に絡む賄賂が郵便詐欺なの??と思ってしまいます。

"honest services"についてはどうでしょうか。


So what is the meaning of the phrase “honest services?” It could apply to almost any form of bad conduct by a public official and to business fraud as well.
(James D Zirin. What Are Honest Services? Huffington Post. June 15, 2010.)

どうやら"honest services"というのは、公務員などが負う職務上の誠実性といった概念のようです。つまり、不誠実(dishonest)は世の中で期待されているところの"honest services"の提供義務に背く、ということでしょうか。


Mail and wire fraud statutes identify a scheme to defraud as including the “right of honest services.” That turns the dishonesty of getting your child admitted to their college of choice into a crime that is punishable by up to 20 years in prison.
(Peter J Henning. Why Paying Bribes to Get Your Child Into College Is a Crime. The New York Times. March 14, 2019.)

ここでは、"right of honest services"という表現が出てきました。やはり、"honest services"はそれを享受することができる権利の1つと捉えられているようです。


まず"mail fraud"については、以下のようにあります。

This is a federal crime and the way this works is it’s the use of the mail. Mail fraud means you either use physical mail … or electronic mail, email, called wire, and that’s important to perpetuate the scheme. What was central to help them effectuate the scheme was that they were using mail and wire, and that was important in communicating to organize this scheme.
(Maddie Ostergaard. Q&A: UCLA law professor explains legal implications of college admissions scandal. Daily Bruin. March 14, 2019.)

郵便に限らず、電子メールでも電信でも何でも、これら手段を使って詐欺を働くのが"mail fraud"ということのようです。


When we typically say mail fraud or wire fraud, a person was trying to cheat another person out of money or property. But sometimes, you’re not trying to cheat someone out of money. Here what you have is they weren’t necessarily cheating the university out of money, (the accused) were getting kickbacks for these kids to get admitted. What’s important there is it was a bribery kickback scheme.


そしてまた"honest services fraud"に戻るのですが、上でも引用したNew York Timesの記事の内容を再掲します。

But how is paying bribes or submitting falsified test scores to get a child into a private college like Georgetown or the University of Southern California a federal crime?

Mail and wire fraud statutes identify a scheme to defraud as including the “right of honest services.” That turns the dishonesty of getting your child admitted to their college of choice into a crime that is punishable by up to 20 years in prison.
(James D Zirin. What Are Honest Services? Huffington Post. June 15, 2010.)

つまり、今回の入学不正は賄賂という手段によって、本来誠実なサービスを提供すべき大学関係者に影響を及ぼし、一般の人々が誠実なサービス(honest services)を享受する権利を侵害した、というところでしょうか。


career suicide




Federal authorities have charged nearly 50 people for participating in a $25 million nationwide college admissions cheating scheme, according to court documents unsealed in Boston on Tuesday.


The actress Lori Loughlin, who is known for her role in Full House, allegedly arranged with her husband to pay a bribe of $500,000 to have their two daughters designated as recruits for the USC crew team, even though the two daughters did not participate in the sport, according to the charging documents.
(Molly Olmstead. The Most Absurd Details From the College Admissions Scandal Indictment. The Slate. March 12, 2019.)


New York Post紙では、以下のように報道されています。

Lori Loughlin has just committed career suicide.

Her alleged involvement in the seamy Varsity Blues college admissions criminal scandal has forever tarnished her reputation as the folksy face of Hallmark Channel and its vanilla-sweet TV movie franchises “When Calls the Heart” and “Garage Sale Mystery.”
(Michael Starr. Lori Loughlin has committed career suicide with college admissions scandal. New York Post. March 13, 2019.)

“career suicide”という表現が目に留まりました。


国内ではコカイン使用で検挙されたミュージシャンが話題ですが、こちらも“career suicide”に違いありません。



そういえばそんなスキャンダルがあったなぁ、という程度の記憶しかないのですが、アメリカのWells Fargoという銀行に関する記事から引用です。

There is certainly no shortage of reasons to hate Wells Fargo. The bank opened over 3 million accounts for people who never actually requested them. It wrongly repossessed “at least 27,000” cars. It accidentally foreclosed on hundreds of people due to a computer glitch. It’s still signing multibillion-dollar settlements for mortgage abuses dating back to the last big housing bubble. The bank has even scammed people on pet insurance.

On Tuesday, Wells Fargo CEO Timothy Sloan appeared before Congress to assure the country that the ripoffs are, at last, under control. Sloan promised that he has made “fundamental changes” at the bank and its problems have been “fixed.”


But in federal court, Wells Fargo tells a different story. Sloan’s vows to “restore trust,” according to court filings from the bank’s own lawyers, are mere “corporate puffery” that “no reasonable investor” could rely on.
(Zach Carter. Wells Fargo Lawyers: Our CEO Is Full Of ‘Corporate Puffery.’ The Huffington Post. March 12, 2019.)


そのWells FargoのCEOが信頼回復のための同社の経営改善について語ったとされますが、同社の弁護士からしてそれらの取り組みを、

“corporate puffery



ここで、“corporate puffery”は、聞こえの良い表現を使った、口先だけ、うわべだけの取り組みを批判的に表現したものと言えるでしょう。


遠吠え? ― far cry

かつて(今現在もそうだとは思いますが)、世界中を震撼させたイスラム国(Islamic State、ISIS)は、シリア国内におけるその拠点をほぼ制圧され、その勢力には大きな陰りが見えます。


BEIRUT (Reuters) - Even as it faced imminent defeat in its last populated territory in eastern Syria, Islamic State made a new propaganda film calling on the few remaining residents of its cold, besieged encampment to maintain their prayers and seek refuge in God.

“Servants of God, keep reciting your prayers and ask for forgiveness,” the loudspeaker of a beaten up van cries as it tours the ramshackle camp in the video. “Repent and ask God for forgiveness, oh servants of God, for perhaps the almighty will find a way out for us.”

The video’s tone is a far cry from the jihadist group’s earlier productions, which boasted of victories in taking over around a third of Syria and Iraq at its height in 2014 and summoned followers around the world to join a growing society.
(Lisa Brrignton. 'Tomorrow we'll be in paradise': Islamic State followers speak from besieged enclave. Reuters. March 13, 2019.)


The video’s tone is a far cry from the jihadist group’s earlier productions

ここで、"far cry"という表現が出てくるのですが、"far cry"は慣用句で、

Something that is very different from something else
(American Heritage Dictionary)



ところで"far cry"という表現の成り立ちに目を向けてみますと、"cry"には元々、叫び声が聞こえる範囲、という空間的、また距離的な概念があるんですね。

つまり、"far cry"は叫び声が届かないくらい遠く離れていること、というのが文字通りの意味で、その距離的な概念はその後、大違い、桁違い、といった差異の概念に変容してきたのです。


Attachment parenting



For Christine Vigeant, being an anti-vaxxer was bigger than just the vaccine decision. And changing her mind was bigger than just one conversation.

When Vigeant was pregnant with her daughter, she had an idea of the kind of mother she wanted to be. Drawn to an alternative, attachment parenting style, she breastfed her daughter until she was 5, wore her in a carrier often, fed her organic food and swaddled her in cloth diapers. Vigeant saw forgoing vaccinations — and the toxins she believed lie within them — as a natural extension of alternative parenting.

The son of Bill Sears, one of the most well-known proponents of attachment parenting, wrote The Vaccine Book: Making the Right Decision for your Child, which health experts say reinforces vaccine myths.
(Alia E Dastagir. Facts alone don't sway anti-vaxxers. So what does? USA Today. March 11, 2019.)


また、”anti-vaxxer”である母親には、”attachment parenting”を信条とする人が多いともされるようです。

ところで、”attachment parenting”とは何のことでしょうか?





Sen. John Kennedy (R-La.) said Sunday that he was surprised at the length of former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort's sentence last week.

"I thought it would be longer," Kennedy said on "Face the Nation."

"Mr. Manafort is a grifter," he continued. "He used to be a partner with Roger Stone. He’s — I’m sorry, Margaret — he's just a sleazoid. He’s always played at the margins."
(Brett Samuels. GOP senator says he was surprised at sentence for 'sleazoid' Manafort. The Hill. March 10, 2019.)

先日の邦紙でも記事を見かけましたが、トランプ氏の選挙対策に携わっていたPaul Manafort氏に懲役47か月の実刑判決が下されました。



he's just a sleazoid







First Amendment

カトリック教徒の小学生の男子が、「聖灰水曜日」(Ash Wednesday)の「おしるし」として額に受けた十字架を学校で担任教師に咎められ、意に反しておしるしを消されてしまったそうです。


A Utah elementary school teacher apologized to one of her Catholic students Wednesday -- and may still face disciplinary action -- after she forced him to wash off the Ash Wednesday cross on his forehead, the boy’s family said.

William McLeod, a fourth grader at Valley View Elementary School, received the ash marking -- made in the shape of a cross and applied by a priest -- for the Catholic religious day that signals the start of the Lenten season and then went to school in Bountiful, Fox 13 reported. He told Fox 13 he was the only student who had ashes.


William’s grandmother, Karen Fisher, told Fox 13 she was “pretty upset” by the incident and received a call from the school’s principal and the teacher who ordered the cross to be washed off.

“I asked her if she read the Constitution with the First Amendment, and she said, 'No,'” Fisher said.
(Katherine Lam. Utah teacher forced student to wash off Ash Wednesday cross on forehead, family says. Fox News. March 8, 2019.)



ところで、無理矢理におしるしを拭き取られてしまったことに男児の母親は反発していて、"the First Amendment"を読んだことあるのか?と詰め寄ったと記事にあります。

"the First Amendment"というのは合衆国憲法修正第1条のことを指し、言論や表現の自由、信仰・宗教の自由を認めたものです。

以前、"Fifth Amendment"や"Second Amendment"も取り上げたことがあります。




パテントの意味を知る ― patently



But in the book, Vargo claims that in 2000, Mitchell told her that then-President Bill Clinton called him to say he was "very unhappy" that Chelsea’s boyfriend was not on the shortlist for the grant -- despite a letter from the White House.


According to the Guardian, Vargo writes that she was later put on the path to joining the Clintons' “enemies list” -- a journey that was furthered when she advised Obama’s campaign on Irish policy during his Democratic primary race against Hillary Clinton.
(Adam Shaw. Clintons face new accusations of nepotism, retribution politics in tell-all. Fox News. March 6, 2019.)



Vargo also claims that the State Department in 2012, when Hillary was secretary of state, cut its $500,000 funding to the Mitchell scholarship, citing budgetary measures -- but Vargo claims it was part of the “payback.”

Representatives for the Clintons said that the accusations are "patently false."


the accusations are "patently false."






特許を意味する"patent"は、"letters patent"から来ているのだそうです。(フランス語で、lettre patent、ラテン語でlitterae patentes)


つまり、"letters patent"の~patentの部分は形容詞が後置されたものであり、直訳すれば"letters open"ということになるのです。

"letters open"とは何ぞや、ということになりますが、逆の意味になる"letters close"がプライベートな内容の私信を指すのに対し、"letters open"は公(おおやけ)にされたレター、つまり発明やアイデアを認める旨を広く一般に公布した、まさしく特許の証明書ということなのです。




Bill and Hillary Clinton are facing fresh accusations of nepotism and revenge politics after a Democratic foreign policy adviser claimed they tried to obtain a scholarship for Chelsea Clinton’s boyfriend, and later punished the adviser for backing then-candidate Barack Obama in 2008.

The Guardian reports that the allegations were made by Trina Vargo in a new book: “Shenanigans: the U.S.-Ireland Relationship in Uncertain Times.” Vargo is the founder of the U.S-Ireland Alliance, a D.C.-based non-profit.

The controversy surrounded the Mitchell scholarship -- named after former Sen. George Mitchell, D-Maine, who is credited with helping forge the 1998 Good Friday agreement -- which sends 12 students each year to study in Ireland and Northern Ireland.

But in the book, Vargo claims that in 2000, Mitchell told her that then-President Bill Clinton called him to say he was "very unhappy" that Chelsea’s boyfriend was not on the shortlist for the grant -- despite a letter from the White House.
(Adam Shaw. Clintons face new accusations of nepotism, retribution politics in tell-all. Fox News. March 5, 2019.)





Merriam-Websterの語源解説によれば当時の法王Sixtus IV世は自身のいとこにあたる親族に対する厚遇で有名だったらしく、"nepotism"という単語が生まれるきっかけになったとのこです。



間食好きな外国人 ― snack





When you hear the word “snack,” chances are you think chips and cookies, and therefore believe snacking is something to be avoided.

But eating between meals can be good for you — if you make healthful choices. And older people may actually need to snack to compensate for eating less at meals.

“Medication, depression, changes in taste and smell, and a drop in activity level can all cause a decline in appetite,” says Lauri Wright, chair of the department of nutrition and dietetics at the University of North Florida in Jacksonville.

When you eat less at one sitting, it can be difficult to get the energy, vitamins and minerals needed from three meals alone.

Snacking — or eating six mini­meals a day instead of only three — can fill in the gaps,” Wright says.
(Snacking can be good for you if you make healthy choices. The Washington Post. March 4, 2019.)













Bernie Sanders sends a warning to 2020 rivals with rollicking weekend rallies

Chicago (CNN) — Sen. Bernie Sanders brought it all back home this weekend, hosting a pair of boisterous rallies in two cities he credited for a political awakening that set him on a path that could, as he launches his second presidential campaign, deliver him to the White House.

In Chicago on Sunday night, Sanders again offered a rare public embrace of his roots, telling supporters at Navy Pier's Festival Hall that his years here as a student activist were "an extraordinary moment in my life and very much shaped my world view and what I wanted to do."
(Gregory Krieg. Bernie Sanders sends a warning to 2020 rivals with rollicking weekend rallies. CNN. March 4, 2019.)


ランダムハウス英和の解説では、"rollick"は、"romp"と"frolic"の混成によるものだということです。(Merriam-Webster、American Heritage Dictionaryでは、いずれも語源不詳となっていました。)



引用した記事に戻りますと、バーニー・サンダース氏の地方遊説を取り上げた内容です。タイトルの"rollicking weekend rallies"は文字通りにはしゃいだというよりも、次回の大統領選出馬も目論む同氏が地元で気炎を吐いた、というくらいの意味合いでしょうか。


The New Orleans Saints' victory over the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in their final regular-season game Sunday featured their trademark passing game, key defensive stops and 70,000 rollicking fans fueled by brass bands and beer.
(New York Times, 2014)


Unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno.



Unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno.


One for all, all for one.