民間療法 ― home remedy


Potatoes only belong in one human hole.

Doctors are starting to get very concerned about people who subscribe to a dangerous home remedy touted on numerous websites, which involves inserting a potato into the rectum.

Credible medical professionals are emphasizing that this will not, in fact, help with hemorrhoids (also known as piles).

“There is no medical evidence that putting frozen potatoes inside the anus can help cure piles, so I would urge caution to anyone thinking of doing it,” Dr. Diana Gall tells Wales Online, noting that those suffering from the condition can attempt to treat it at home in a number of ways — but sticking frozen spuds up their butt is not one of them.

She doesn’t go into detail on the possible consequences of the at-home remedy, but one would think there are enough cautionary tales to discourage such efforts.
(Hannah Frishberg. Putting potatoes up your butt won’t cure hemorrhoids, doctors warn. New York Post. February 27, 2020.)




home remedy
at-home remedy







Men may need to hack off their muttonchops, void their Van Dykes or pluck their ducktails if they plan on using a respirator, according to information from the CDC about how facial hair can interact with the devices.

A graphic released by the agency shows the fashionable facial-hair-wearer which styles will conflict with potentially life-saving respirators as the US braces for the quickly spreading coronavirus to emerge state-side.

Handlebar, walrus, and Zorro mustaches are fine, but the CDC says folks may need to lose their Fu Manchus, Dalis, and Englishes — because they could prevent respirators from making a seal on wearers’ faces.
(CDC warns men about facial hair dangers amid coronavirus fears. Fox News. February 27, 2020.)









PCに詳しい方はよくご存知だと思いますが、画像ファイルの拡張子というものには、ビットマップ(BMP)やJPEG(JPG)などがあり、GIFはその1つで、"Graphics Interchange Format"の頭文字を取ったものです。




Jif is releasing a limited-edition jar of GIF peanut butter in a collaboration meant to be as smooth as the product itself.

The purpose is to "settle the great debate" over how to pronounce the looping image format that has overtaken in the internet, J.M. Smucker Company (SJM), the brand's manufacturer, said in a press release.

Although Jif is obviously pronounced with a "soft G," people often mispronounce the word "GIF," which is short for Graphics Interchange Format. It's said with a "soft G like the peanut butter and not a "hard G." That's according to creator Steve Wilhite, who made the declaration in 2013 while accepting a Webby Award.

Regardless of the official ruling, the internet has remained divided. Jif is partnering with GIPHY, a GIF search engine, to "put a lid on this decade-long debate": Both GIF and the peanut butter are pronounced "Jif."
(Jordan Valinsky. Jif settles the great debate with a GIF peanut butter jar. CNN. February 25, 2020.)


正しい発音は"soft G"、つまり、アルファベットのJと同じ、また、ピーナッツバターよろしく柔らかい"soft G"の「ジフ」であるとして、自社製品の"Jif"に掛けたものです。

"GIF"の発音を巡ってはこの画像フォーマットの開発者自身が"soft G"であると宣言しているにも関わらず、"hard G"の発音を主張する人もおり、これは恐らく"Graphics~"の発音に引っ張られているものと思われます。


black swan

"black swan"という表現をご存知でしょうか?



Stock markets tumbled around the world. The number of coronavirus cases mushroomed in advanced nations like Italy, Japan and South Korea. And travel bans expanded as leaders confronted the nightmarish prospect of a spreading virus swallowing their nations.

President Donald Trump’s top aides faced an increasingly urgent threat Monday with potentially monumental implications: a global outbreak knocking down the U.S. economy and walloping markets in an election year, all against accusations about whether the Trump administration had mismanaged and underfunded a critical response with American lives on the line.

A swift drop in the stock market — the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell more than 1,000 points, its largest slide in two years — jolted officials in the White House and across Washington, delivering implications from the long-simmering coronavirus threat to a wider swath of Americans.

“The view in the White House is that this is one of those classic black swan events, and all we can do is control the health issues in the U.S.,” said Stephen Moore, an informal economic adviser to the Trump team.
(Trump faces ‘black swan’ threat to the economy and reelection. Politico. February 24, 2020.)

記事のタイトルと、本文では下記のくだりで"black swan"という表現が出てきます。

this is one of those classic black swan events

ここの"this"とは新型肺炎の感染拡大のことですから、つまり今のこの状況が"black swan"である、ということになります。

辞書にはこの表現が載っておらず、オーストラリアに生息する国鳥のことであるという説明しか見当たりませんが、コーパス等で検索してみると、この"black swan"には非常にまれな出来事、予想外、また想定外の事態、というような意味で用いられていることが分かります。


以下はForbes誌の記事で"black swan"という表現について説明したものです。

In 2007, statistician Nassim Nicholas Taleb defined “Black Swan” as an event that “is an outlier,” as it lies outside the realm of regular expectations. Black Swans by that definition are mostly unforeseen, rare, and can be created by geo-political, economic, or from other unexpected events.

Black Swans bring challenges to risk management, especially in our rapidly transforming technological landscape. However, those transformative changes in emerging technology add to the ability to analytically forecast and try to mitigate Black Swan events.
(Risk Management And Black Swan Events. Forbes. October 23, 2019.)

この引用によれば、"black swan"という表現は2007年に統計専門家が使い始めたのが最初のようですから、比較的新しい表現ということになります。



pot shot

今日のお題から。”pot shot”という表現をご存知でしょうか?


Elizabeth Warren is still looking down on Mike Bloomberg — from a vantage point of at least one inch above.

The Massachusetts Democrat, speaking in Seattle after placing fourth in the Nevada caucuses, took a glancing ‘he’s short’ pot shot Saturday night at Bloomberg, a candidate who wasn’t even on the state’s ballot.

“I want to talk specifically for just a minute at the top about a threat that is coming our way,” began Warren, who first came out swinging against the billionaire upstart candidate at Wednesday night’s debates.

“And it’s a big threat — not a tall one, but a big one: Michael Bloomberg.”
(Laura Italiano. Warren can’t resist a Mike Bloomberg height joke. New York Post. February 23, 2020.)





took a glancing ‘he’s short’ pot shot

と表現されていますが、ここで”pot shot”という表現が使われています。

“pot shot”(あるいは”potshot”)を辞書で引くと、









そのような”pot shot”ですから、意味合いとしては、相手を攻撃するために手っ取り早くあることないこと、闇雲に発する批判まがいの言説を指す表現としても使われるようになったようです。



ブルームバーグ氏の身長については、トランプ大統領(6フィート3インチ; 約190センチメートル)も折に触れて取り上げているらしく、大統領選というものは何と意地汚いものだろうかと思わずにいられません。


コピペの父、逝く ― copy and paste

ツイッターのタイムラインを眺めていたら、Larry Teslerという人の訃報を伝える記事の見出しが目に留まりました。

このLarry Teslerという人の名前は知りませんでしたが、"creator of copy, cut and paste function"とあります。


New York(CNN Business) — Larry Tesler, a pioneer of personal computing credited with creating the cut, copy and paste as well as the search and replace functions, has died. He was 74.

Tesler was not nearly as well known as computing giants such as Bill Gates or Steve Jobs. But he played an early, central role in making computers accessible to people without computer engineering degrees, i.e. most of us.

Xerox (XRX), the company for whom he developed the functions, tweeted out news of his death. "Your workday is easier thanks to his revolutionary ideas," the company's tweet said.

Cut, copy and paste and search and replace functions are used millions of times a day without users thinking twice about how they were developed or by whom.
(Larry Tesler, creator of copy, cut and paste function, dies at 74. CNN. February 20, 2020.)







copy and paste

という、まあ誰でも知っている表現になりますが、驚いたことにMerriam-Websterのオンライン辞書で見てみると、"copy and paste"はイディオムということで、独立したエントリとして載っています。

to copy (text) and insert it somewhere else in a document

一方、"search and replace"はどうかというと、イディオムにはなっておらず、やはり「コピペ」が如何に普及しているかの証左ではないかと思います。


Cut, copy and paste and search and replace functions are used millions of times a day

ここで等位接続詞(and)の使い方に注意してみると、"copy and paste"、"search and replace"はそれぞれが1つの塊として捉えられていることが分かります。


take a bite out of



A newlywed police couple took a bite out of crime at a Kentucky chicken joint during their date night — when they collared a masked gunman who chose the wrong spot to hold up, according to reports.

Elizabethtown cops Chase and Nicole McKeown, who tied the knot about six months ago, were enjoying a meal at Raising Cane’s Chicken Fingers in Louisville about 10 p.m. Saturday when the man walked up to the counter.

“I think we kind of both saw him at the same time,” Nicole said at a news conference, WDRB reported.

She said she initially thought the man was sick, possibly with the flu, but her police instincts then kicked in and she alerted her detective hubby.
(Yaron Steinbuch. Off-duty cops on date night foil armed robbery at chicken joint. New York Post. February 19, 2020.)




took a bite out of crime



辞書で”bite”を引いてみると、この”take a bite out of”というフレーズも大抵載っていますが、意味合いとしてはまず1つ目には文字通り、「一口かじる」(食べる)、というもの、2つ目には、ある全体の一部分という意味で、これはシェアだとか、売上とか貯金とか、お金に関する話のものです。

took a bite out of crime”の意味するところは、恐らくは記事のタイトルで使われている”foil”という動詞とほぼ同義になるのではないかと思われます。





新型肺炎で、イベントが次々と中止に ― scrap





Fashion houses Chanel and Prada have scrapped plans for upcoming fashion shows in Asia because of the coronavirus outbreak, which is crimping spending on luxury goods.

French designer Chanel on Tuesday postponed its May show in Beijing given “the current situation and following the guidance of Chinese authorities,” it said. Italian fashion house Prada also called off a May show in nearby Japan, citing the viral outbreak that has killed nearly 1,900 people worldwide, mostly in China.

In Japan, there are only 74 coronavirus cases and 1 death, but the island nation, which has the third most cases worldwide, is desperately working to contain the outbreak, including by cancelling the emperor’s birthday celebrations later this month.
Neither Chanel nor Prada gave new dates for their shows.
(Noah Manskar. Chanel, Prada scrap Asia fashion shows over coronavirus fears. New York Post. February 18, 2020.)



have scrapped plans for upcoming fashion shows in Asia



to cancel or get rid of something that is no longer practical or useful
(Oxford Learners' Dictionary)





sleeve of ~


Next time you catch yourself polishing off a sleeve of cookies before bed, try skipping the snack and hitting the hay earlier.

A new study published today in the Journal of the American Heart Association reveals a link between sleep deprivation and high-calorie food cravings, particularly in women. The survey of nearly 500 women between the ages of 20 and 76 found that those who reported poor sleep quality or a lack of sleep also consumed more foods high in added sugars, saturated fats and caffeine.

Researchers warn that women are already at high risk for obesity and sleep disorders — both causes and results of calorific food intake. Foods associated with added sugars and fats are also linked to Type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
(Hannah Sparks. Blame your sugar cravings on lack of sleep, science says. New York Post. February 17, 2020.)




a sleeve of cookies




A case into which an object or device fits
(American Heritage Dictionary)

という意味が相当しそうです。例示として、"a record sleeve"とありましたが、なるほどレコードを収める容れ物のことをスリーブとか、スリーブジャケットとか言うのでしたね。(CD世代、さらにはネット音楽世代の人には分からないか・・・。


a tubular part (such as a hollow axle or a bushing) designed to fit over another part
an open-ended flat or tubular packaging or cover


つまり、"a sleeve of~"という表現は、"a pair of~"などと同様に単位として用いられているようです。

そこで、コーパスを使ってこのような"a sleeve of~"を検索してみると、

a sleeve of crackers
three sleeves of balls
a sleeve of Oreos
one sleeve of golf balls
a sleeve of peanut butter crackers
a sleeve of Ritz crackers
a sleeve of sugar





It’s lit!


民主党による”Bail Reform”のお陰ということなのですが・・・。

A New York City man who’s now been arrested 139 times thanked Democrats for guaranteeing his immediate release despite repeatedly swiping hundreds of dollars from unsuspecting subway commuters since the state’s new bail reform law went into effect Jan. 1.

Charles Barry, 56, has been arrested six times since the start of this year. He’s been released each time without having to post bail under New York’s new bail reform law since his alleged offenses were nonviolent, the New York Daily News reported. In the past, Barry’s served several stints in state prison and has a lengthy record, including six felonies, 87 misdemeanors and 21 missed court hearings, the newspaper reported, citing court records.

“Bail reform, it’s lit!” Barry yelled to reporters Thursday outside the NYPD Transit District 1 headquarters in the Columbus Circle station before officers transported him to Manhattan Central Booking. “It’s the Democrats! The Democrats know me and the Republicans fear me. You can’t touch me! I can’t be stopped!”
(Danielle Wallace. NYC subway thief thanks Democrats after his 139th arrest, release: 'Bail reform, it’s lit!'. Fox News. February 16, 2020.)


It’s lit!



Lit has been used as slang for over a century, but it used to be slang for "drunk." Now, "lit" has taken on a new slang meaning describing something that is "exciting or excellent."
(Merriam-Webster Dictionary)





woman enough



恐らく中継番組の途中に入るCM(CF)の話だろうと思うのですが、産後の女性が使う生理用品のそれが、いわゆる「グロ」("too graphic")ということで、放送されなかったということで波紋を広げているようです。

The Oscars aren’t woman enough to air an advertisement about the raw side of motherhood.

The ad, which was barred from showing during the Academy Awards’ three-hour broadcast, opens with the sound of a crying newborn. On-screen, an apparently exhausted and suffering new mom trudges into a bathroom, wearing a thick, diaper-like mesh underwear — typical postpartum garb, though most probably wouldn’t know that.

“Postpartum recovery doesn’t have to be this hard,” the title card reads at the end. The commercial side of the ad is revealed at the end, when products from women’s health company Frida Mom appear on-screen.

Now, Frida CEO Chelsea Hirschhorn is pushing back on the idea that their 60-second spot is “too graphic” to air on TV.

“We were really surprised to hear that feminine hygiene was put in the same category as guns, ammunition, sexually suggestive nudity, religion and politics,” Hirschhorn told Today Parents, referring to the academy’s commercial guidelines. “I was surprised, in this day and age, to see that whomever at whatever organizational level at the academy and at ABC put in writing that they would analogize feminine hygiene to some of those other, more offensive categories of advertising.”
(Hannah Sparks. Watch the Frida Mom postpartum ad Oscars rejected for being too graphic. New York Post. February 11, 2020.)

問題になったのは、Frida Momという会社のCMで、出産直後と思われる女性が出てきます。

百聞は一見に如かず、New York Post紙記事に引用されているCM映像をご覧下さい。


Frida Momはこれまでも議論を呼ぶような内容のキャンペーンを行ったことでも知られており、今回のCMについても議論を呼ぶことは想定内だったかもしれません。

Frida Mom has been known to push the envelope in the past. In 2018, the feminine hygiene company dared to run a billboard campaign for a post-pregnancy perineal irrigation bottle. According to Vox, ad gatekeepers took issue with their cheeky tagline: “Trust us, your vagina will thank you.”


The Oscars aren’t woman enough to air an advertisement...

と口火が切られているのですが、この"woman enough"という表現を取り上げたいと思います。


検索してまず出てくるのは、この"woman enough"というフレーズは、ある有名なカントリーミュージックの歌詞の一部らしいということです。

その歌詞から人口に膾炙するようになったのか、Collins Cobuild Dictionaryのサイトではこのフレーズが載っており、

If you say that a woman is woman enough to do something, you mean that she has the necessary courage or ability to do it.
(Collins Dictionaryのサイトから引用)


さて、何と訳したものか?と思いますが、アカデミー賞が女性と出産を取り巻く状況について理解が及んでいないという事を暗に批判して、"The Oscars aren’t woman enough..."という表現になったのだろうと思います。






Nissan Motors filed a lawsuit in Japan on Wednesday seeking $90 million from its former chairman Carlos Ghosn, who fled the country before his trial on charges of financial wrongdoing.

The automaker says 10 billion yen, or $90 million, would cover the monetary damages it says Mr. Ghosn inflicted on the company through misconduct and fraud.

Nissan said it expected that amount to increase as it sought to recover the fines paid to the Japanese Financial Services Agency and other penalties linked to Mr. Ghosn’s alleged misconduct.

Mr. Ghosn has denied any wrongdoing. In an emailed statement, a spokesman said, “Nissan’s maneuvers continue,” noting that the lawsuit was made public one day before the automaker was scheduled to release its earnings report.

“Mr. Ghosn’s lawyers will react on the merits of the case once the content of the claim has been brought to their attention,” the statement read.
(Amie Tsang. Nissan Sues Carlos Ghosn for $90 Million. New York Times. February 12, 2020.)




Mr. Ghosn’s lawyers will react on the merits of the case










ぼんやりと分かってきたことは、今回のケースで言えば、訴えられている事案(the case)について、純粋にその内容の正、不正、あるいは良し悪し、に目を向ける、というのが"on the merits of the case"の意味するところ、ということのようです。

これに対して、恐らくは訴訟上の手続きや形式的側面(?)を云々するという場合は"on the merits"ではない、ということなのだと思われますが、うまく説明するだけの法律知識を持ち合わせておらず、理解するにしてもこの辺りが限界と告白します。





MANCHESTER, N.H. — Andrew Yang, a Democratic businessman who campaigned on giving every adult American a monthly check for $1,000, will end his campaign for president after a disappointing showing in the New Hampshire primary.

“I am a numbers guy,” Yang said in an interview before addressing supporters at Manchester’s Puritan Backroom. “In most of these [upcoming] states, I’m not going to be at a threshold where I get delegates, which makes sticking around not necessarily helpful or productive in terms of furthering the goals of this campaign.”
(Andrew Yang drops out of presidential race. The Washington Post. February 11, 2020.)

実業家のAndrew Yang氏がその一人で、

will end his campaign for president after a disappointing showing in the New Hampshire primary




Performance, as in a competition or test of skill
(American Heritage Dictionary)



The seat is a top target for Democrats because McSally just lost a Senate race in November and Democrats posted a strong showing in the November election, winning three statewide contests and picking up legislative and congressional seats.
(Market Watch, 2019)







(CNN) — The campaigns of Bernie Sanders and Pete Buttigieg on Monday requested a partial recanvass of the results from the Iowa caucuses.

Sanders' campaign has asked for a recanvass of 25 precincts and three satellite caucuses in the state, arguing that if "errors" are corrected, the Vermont senator would pick up one national delegate.

Buttigieg's campaign, meanwhile, has asked for a recanvass of 66 precincts and all satellite caucuses in the state, a total of 143 precincts, the Iowa Democratic Party said.

The state party would not say Monday how long the recanvass would take.
(Sanders and Buttigieg campaigns ask for partial recanvass of Iowa caucuses results. CNN. February 10, 2020.)

集計結果の信頼性が問題になっているのだと思われますが、対立候補同士であるSanders氏、Buttigieg氏の両氏が”partial recanvass”を要求しているということになっています。











このことから、”toss in a canvas sheet”は、篩にかける、選別する、吟味、精査する、というような意味で用いられ、その後、候補者の選別、つまり選挙のコンテクストで用いられるようになったということです。


eight ball



A Florida teacher has been busted for trying to get drugs delivered to her while she taught at an elementary school, according to authorities.

First-grade teacher Valerie Lee Prince, 43, called a dealer to bring her an eight ball of meth at Jacksonville Heights Elementary School — saying she was willing to abandon her class to collect it, according to Clay County Sheriff’s Office.

“You call me, I can just say I have to use the phone real quick — I could step out and come right back in,” she told the dealer, who was an informant who worked with police narcotics officers to record the call.

The call suggested that she planned to “consume some of the narcotics and return to the classroom,” Lt. Domenic Paniccia told a press conference, which shared audio of the teacher’s desperate call.
(Lee Brown. Florida teacher tried to get ‘8 ball’ of meth delivered at school: cops. New York Post. February 9, 2020.)


an eight ball of meth

という部分の”eight ball”はビリヤードのゲームの一種である「エイトボール」というものですが、麻薬の世界で使われる隠語だそうです。

何故、”eight ball”なのか、については、数字の”eight” (8)が8分の1オンス(約3〜3.5ミリグラム)という麻薬の量を表すということのようです。




先日米議会で行われた大統領による一般教書演説(State of the Union Address)。






ところで、この件に関する多くの報道記事を読んだのですが、New York Post紙の記事は秀逸で、どうやらペロシ氏は演説終了後に手元のコピーを破り捨てる準備をしていたのではないかとも思われる「証拠」について記事にしています。

House Speaker Nancy Pelosi apparently made tiny tears in her copy of President Trump’s State of the Union address — so that her speech-ripping moment could go off without a hitch.

As Trump introduced cancer-stricken radio host Rush Limbaugh — who received the Medal of Freedom during the speech — Pelosi could be seen grabbing the pages off the table.

Video shows her making what seemed to be a tearing motion and then placing the pages back on the table.
Photos of the sheets of paper show them face down on the table with small slits on the side, near where Pelosi would eventually rip them into pieces.
(Tamar Lapin. Nancy Pelosi ‘pre-ripped’ pages of Trump’s SOTU speech, video shows. New York Post. February 5, 2020.)



so that her speech-ripping moment could go off without a hitch


"without a hitch"というフレーズでよく使われるようですが、ここで"hitch"というのは、(想定外の)障害とか困難、支障、躓き、といった意味です。





寒いですね~ ― cuffing season




Adopting a dog? Coors Light offering $100 toward dog adoption fees for Valentine's Day

Coors Light wants to make a canine your Valentine this year.

If you're thinking about getting a dog for Valentine's Day this year, the beer brand will pay some of the adoption fees.

The company – which in a news release called itself "the official beer of skipping cuffing season" – will give $100 to the first 1,000 dogs adopted between Feb. 4 and 11:59 p.m. CT Feb. 21.

But there are some rules.

Anyone of legal drinking age in eligible states through Feb. 21 can get some of their adoption fees covered. According to the fine print, adoptions in California, Louisiana, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, Virginia and West Virginia are not eligible.
(Briana Rice. Adopting a dog? Coors Light offering $100 toward dog adoption fees for Valentine's Day. USA Today. February 5, 2020.)

何と、100ドル進呈キャンペーンの仕掛人はビールメーカーのCoors Lightだということです。


ところで、Coors Lightは、

"the official beer of skipping cuffing season"

と標榜しているということなのですが、ここに出てくる"cuffing season"という表現の意味が分かりませんでした。

辞書にも載っていないのですが、"cuffing season"というのは、いわゆる「人肌恋しくなる季節」のことを言うのだそうです。

USA Today紙の記事は以下のように続きます。

"Cuffing Season is a major cultural trend and poses tension for our younger drinkers, as they navigate the stress of finding someone to spend the cold months with," Chelsea Parker, marketing manager at Molson Coors, said in the news release. "With almost half of millennials planning to stay in on Valentine's Day, we wanted to help empower people to savor the day with Coors Light and a dog by their side."

つまり、Coors Lightは人肌恋しくなるこの寒い季節に、恋人のいない若者にはイヌを伴侶としてもらうべくキャンペーンを張った、ということのようです。

ところで、"cuffing season"がなぜ、「人肌恋しい季節」の意味になるのでしょうか?

繰り返しになりますが、手元のどの辞書にも"cuffing season"という表現は載っておらず、また"cuff"という単語自体に、このような意味を類推させる意味合いは見いだせません。

ネットで色々と検索してみますと、"cuffing season"という表現は定着しているようです。






いわゆる「赤ちゃん言葉」、英語では、"baby talk"と言います。

(CNN) — "Goo goo ga ga? Are wu my widdle baby?" If your idea of "baby talk" makes you throw up in your mouth a little, then it's time to get educated.

True baby talk, which a new study shows can boost infant brain and speech development, is actually proper adult speech, just delivered in a different cadence.


A parenting speaking style that is used in nearly every language in the world, true "baby talk" became known as "motherese" and today is called "parentese" -- because, after all, it's not just moms who use it. Many dads, grandparents, older siblings, aunts, uncles and babysitters speak parentese, intuitively aware that it helps the baby tune in socially and respond, even if only through babbling.

"Parentese has three characteristics," said Patricia Kuhl, the co-director of the Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences at the University of Washington, who has been studying children's early language learning for decades.

"One of them is that it has a higher overall pitch, about an octave higher," Kuhl said. "Another is that intonation contours are very curvy; the highs are higher, the lows are lower, and it sounds excited and happy.
(Sandee LaMotte. 'Parentese,' not traditional baby talk, boosts a baby's language development. CNN. February 4, 2020.)


ところで、"baby talk"という英語以外に、





この"parentese"を辞書でチェックしてみると、ランダムハウス英和辞書、研究社大英和(第五版)、Merriam-Websterではエントリが見当たらないのですが、American Heritage Dictionaryにはちゃんと載っていました。

さらに、このような「赤ちゃん言葉」は総称して、"child-directed speech"とも言うらしく、Usage Noteには以下のようにあります。

Although motherese popularly describes the language patterns of mothers speaking to their infants, these patterns are not limited to them; therefore, child-language researchers often employ the term child-directed speech to include a wider range of speakers and addressees. Others use caregiver speech, which reflects a still wider range, or, less commonly, parentese.
(American Heritage Dictionary)



supraglacial lake




(CNN) — Fifty-year-old Lewis Pugh says he was terrified when he plunged into the water of East Antarctica in nothing but swim briefs, a swim cap and goggles. He was even more terrified when he swam below the Antarctic ice sheet, through melting tunnels -- though he said it was the most beautiful swim he's ever done.

Pugh is known for swimming in Arctic water to raise awareness for climate change, but on January 23, he became the first person to swim in a supraglacial lake -- a lake that has formed on top of a glacier because of melting ice.

"(The swim) was terrifying for a number of reasons," Pugh told CNN. "First, the water is so cold for a swimmer. It was 0 degrees centigrade, just above freezing. But also, it illustrates very very graphically what is happening in East Antarctica."

The point he was trying to make, he said, is that it shouldn't be possible to do the swim, but it is because of cracks in the glacier.
(A climate activist swam under the Antarctic ice sheet to prove how quickly glaciers are. CNN. February 4, 2020.)

50歳になるLewis Pughさんは地球温暖化による危機を訴える啓もう活動の一環として敢えて氷点下に近い水温の南極氷河を泳いでいるそうです。


Pughさんが訴える地球温暖化の問題は"supraglacial lake"にあるということです。

この"supraglacial lake"というのは、"glacier"(氷河)のsupra-(上)にある湖(lake)という意味です。

Pughさんはこの"supraglacial lake"を実際に泳ぐことによって、その水が氷河の亀裂から染み出していることを確認しました。氷河が崩れて海面上昇につながる危機的な状況だと言います。



an arm and a leg





Face masks intended to keep out the deadly coronavirus aren’t only in short supply, they’re also costing an arm and a leg.

On Amazon, a Novotel medical face mask in a lovely print sells for $27.99, up from $14.99 just 10 days ago. And an AxPower Dust Mask Anti Pollution maskhas jumped from $15.99 to an eye-popping $40.99.

Disposal face masks still seem reasonably priced — a box of 100 goes for $30 — but Amazon puts the earliest delivery date in late February.
(Paula Froelich. Coronavirus outbreak: Prices skyrocket for face masks. New York Post. February 1, 2020.)

New York Post紙の記事から引用しましたが、

they’re also costing an arm and a leg

という部分の、"(cost) an arm and a leg"というのは、たくさんのお金(がかかる)という意味の成句です。

なぜ、腕(an arm)と脚(a leg)で「たくさんのお金」の意味になるのでしょう。

しばしば参考にさせていただくThe Phrase Finderのウェブサイトにはこの表現の由来について興味深い説明が載っていました。



"an arm and a leg"という表現の初出は比較的最近らしく、第二次世界大戦後の1949年に確認されるということです。つまり肖像画云々の時代よりももっと新しいのです。