ツンとくる香りにヒント ― pungent



The chemistry prize went to Japanese researchers who invented a fire alarm that emits the pungent odor of wasabi, the sinus-clearing green paste served with sushi.

"Wasabi odor is useful as a fire alarm to deaf people who failed to wake up with a conventional mode such as sound, vibration or flashing light," said Makoto Imai, professor of psychiatry at Shiga University of Medical Science.

The key is allyl isothiocyanate, the compound in wasabi that gives out its distinctive smell and can be detected even during sleep.

The team settled on wasabi after trying about 100 odors, including rotten eggs.
(Mark Pratt. Full bladders, wasabi alarm earn Ig Nobels. Houston Chronicle. September 29, 2011.) 




逃亡して ― on lam

インターネットでNew York Post紙のホームページを見ていましたら、ヘッドラインで見慣れない表現を見つけました。

Fugitive who was on lam for 41 years lived idyllic life in Portugal

To his neighbors in Portugal, he was Jose Luis Jorge Dos Santos, just plain George to some, a quiet man who worked odd jobs and enjoyed the company of his family.

But to frustrated investigators who had been hunting him down for 41 years, he was a cold-blooded, conniving killer who used every trick in the book to avoid their desperate manhunt.

Authorities who finally nabbed militant murderer George Wright this week said he has been living an idyllic life in a scenic suburb of Lisbon, Portugal, where he is married with two children now in their 20s.
(New York Post. September 28, 2011.)

見出しに使われている"on lam"という表現なのですが、"fugitive..."とありますので意味の推測はつきますが、私は初めてお目にかかる表現でした。





という名詞のエントリが2番目にありました。そして、"on the lam"(ここでは定冠詞"the"が付いていますが、引用例では見られません)という成句で、”逃走中、潜伏中”という意味が紹介されています。

さて、ここで語源に興味が湧いてくるのですが、ランダムハウスの説明では、動詞の"lam"(打つ、たたく)からの派生と説明があり、加えて、"Beat it."(逃げろ、という意味)という表現を参照せよ(cf.)とあります。

"Beat it."には確かに、”逃げろ”という意味の命令文ですが、この"beat"と”打つ、たたく”の意味がある"lam"との連想から、逃亡の意味が発展したものと考えられるということでしょうか。

ちなみに、American Heritage Dictionaryでは、"Origin unknown."(語源不詳)、研究社の大英和でも語源不詳という説明でした。ランダムハウスの語源解説の信憑性や如何に!?


New York minute

"New York minute"という表現をご存知でしょうか?

"in a New York minute"という形で用いられることが多いのですが、字義通りに解釈するならば、ニューヨークにおける”1分”、ということになります。ニューヨークにおける1分も、サンフランシスコにおける1分も、同じ1分には違いありません。ですが、ここで言う、"New York minute"は短い時間のたとえとして用いられる表現です。


うろ覚えなのですが、私が"New York minute"という表現を初めて知ったのは、たしか辞書関係のサイトでの引用だったのですが、そこでの説明に、ニューヨーク市内の運転では信号待ちでぼやぼやしていたらすぐにクラクションを鳴らされる、青になった瞬間にもクラクションが鳴らされるくらいせっかちだ、というような話でした。


In a New York minute, Ed Koch has a change of heart on Obama

Just two weeks ago, former New York Mayor Ed Koch was telling city voters to elect a Republican to Congress, to "send a huge message to President Obama that we're not happy with how he's dealing with Israel."

Now, one speech to the United Nations and a one-on-one chat later, Koch is an enthusiastic backer of the same president's reelection.

The one-time Democrat tells his supporters that it's all water under the Ed Koch Queensborough Bridge.

"I'm now on board the Obama Reelection Express," he says in an email to supporters.
(Michael A Memoli. In a New York minute, Ed Koch has a change of heart on Obama. Los Angels Times. September 27, 2011.)

前New York市長がオバマ政権への不支持から支持へと変節したということのようですが、New York市長だっただけに、"in a New York minute"というのは皮肉でしょうか。


hold down


The latest bad but unsurprising news on education is that reading and writing scores on the SAT have once again declined. The language competence of our high schoolers fell steeply in the 1970s and has never recovered.

This is very worrisome, because the best single measure of the overall quality of our primary and secondary schools is the average verbal score of 17-year-olds. This score correlates with the ability to learn new things readily, to communicate with others and to hold down a job. It also predicts future income.
(ED Hirsch Jr. How to stop the drop in verbal scores. The New York Times. September 18, 2011.)

いわゆる学力テストの結果が嘆かわしいという話で、日本でも聞いたことのあるような話ですが、ここではアメリカ(記事では、Charlottesville, Va.となっていますのでバージニア州限定の話でしょうか)でのSAT(Scholastic Aptitude Test)の読解力と文章作成能力のスコアが問題になっています。

この記事の2段落目にある、"hold down a job"という表現に着目したのですが、意味を調べてみると、



引用した記事の当該部分を解釈してみると、読解力や文章作成能力は仕事を続けていくために重要である、という解釈になると思われます。もう1つの解釈としては、”仕事を得る”という読み方で、この場合は"get a job"のような表現が思いつくのですが、"hold down"というフレーズを使っているのには単に一時的に仕事の口にありつくというよりは、継続的に働いていくことを強調したいのだろうと思われます。


A new tool that is being used on a limited basis to reduce jail costs is letting a select few regional jail inmates hold down jobs while serving their time. Part of his or her wage is taken to pay for the jail bill as well as other items like child support if is it is owed. This program not only reduces the jail costs, but officials hope it will help the individual reintegrate with society when they have served their time.
(Associated Press. 2007.)



Now he drives his 5-year-old daughter to school at 8 a.m., picks her up at 11, drops her at after-care, and picks her up again at 5 p.m. His work group schedules meetings around those commitments, without complaint. With three-quarters of married couples both holding down jobs, it's no longer feasible to expect one partner to shoulder the load at home. Between 1980 and 2000, the share of U.S. families with a sole male breadwinner declined to 25 percent from 42 percent, according to Paul Amato, a University of Pennsylvania sociology professor.
(Houston Chronicle. 2007.)


"hold"という動詞自体に、“維持する”という意味合いが強いので、"hold down"にもやはり同様の意味での解釈が妥当に思われます。


SNS時代の動詞 ― defriend



Want to find out who defriended you on Facebook? Yep. There’s an app for that.

Facebook made headlines and heads turn this week with yet another design overhaul. The biggest change this go-around is the introduction of the Timeline, which shows any and all activity of a user in chronological order. That exposes an unusual bit of information: Users will be able to see who has removed them from their friend list, according to technology blog Buzz Feed.

“Sounds like a troublemaker,” wrote one commentor on the FoxNews.com SciTech Facebook page

The new design doesn’t go live until September 29th, but people have figured out a simple means for enabling the beta version.
(Perry Chiaramonte. Facebook Reveals Who Doesn't Want to Be Your Friend Anymore. Fox News. September 23, 2011.)



わたしはフェースブックアカウントを持ちませんので検証した訳ではないのですが、記事の画像などから見る限り、"friend"としてユーザー同士がリンクするのは、"Add Friend"というボタンをクリックするようですので、当のSNSサイトにおいて"friend"や"defriend"という表現が使われているのではなさそうです。



色が演出するイメージ(5) ― redbrick


"redbrick"とは”赤レンガ”のことですが、イギリスにおいて"redbrick universities"というと、これはOxfordやCambridgeといった伝統のある超有名大学以外の、新設の工業系の専門科を持つ大学のことを指すそうです。

手元に、ランダムハウス英語辞典と研究社の大英和があるのですが、エントリを見ると、この"redbrick universities"という表現は、ランダムハウスでは、”二流大学”、また研究社の大英和では、表現として時に軽蔑的な響きがある、という注意書きがあります。ちなみに研究社の大英和では、OxfordやCambridgeなどは"blue-brick universities"と表現されるということです。この"blue-"が何に由来するのかの解説はありませんが、先日の"blue-chip"と同じでしょうか。



Kweku Adoboli, identified as the rogue UBS trader who racked up $2 billion in losses, followed a traditional path in finance.

He attended a good school, the University of Nottingham, which is part of a group of leading institutions known in Britain as red brick universities. He landed a job at a top firm, UBS, shortly after graduation. And he worked his way up through the ranks, eventually joining a highly profitable trading desk in the investment bank.
(A UBS Trader, From Typical to Rogue. The New York Times. September 15, 2011.)


Kelly himself went to a comprehensive in Wiltshire where, as at Highbury Grove, few students went to top universities; he was the only person in his year to go to Oxford, where he studied English. 'The only reason I went to Oxford while everyone else in my class went to ex-polytechnics was because I knew my parents expected me to go to a good university,' he says. 'But for some reason my teachers didn't want us to apply for red-brick universities because they thought they were elitist and not right for us. So I went to university with the feeling that there was something wrong.'
(Access all areas - the project helping disadvantaged children into top universities. The Telegraph. September 23, 2011.)

引用を読んでいただいて違和感を感じられたと思いますが、いずれの引用例においても、"redbrick universities"という表現に軽蔑的な響きがありません。むしろ、レベルの高い大学という扱いではないでしょうか。

American Heritage Dictionaryを見てみますと以下のような定義です。

redbrick, adj

Of, relating to, or being the British universities other than Oxford and Cambridge. [So-called because many of the buildings of such universities were built of red bricks.]


イギリスの大学の話ですので、Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary(第4判; 1992年)もチェックしてみました。

redbrick, adj

(Brit sometimes derog) (of universities) founded near the end of the 19th century or later

こちらは、"sometimes derog"(derog=derogatory)とあるように、この表現が時に軽蔑的な響きを持つことを伝えています。





色が演出するイメージ(4) ― white feather


4日目の今日取り上げる表現は、"white feather"というものですが、字義通りには”白い羽根”ということになります。”白い羽根”は臆病の象徴として用いられます。

For me, the most striking scene in Downton Abbey on Sunday was the one with the “feather girls” – women who, during the First World War, would approach any man who hadn’t joined up and present him with a white feather, symbolising cowardice. Lady Edith Crawley (played by Laura Carmichael) sided with the feather girls: “When heroes are giving their lives every day, it’s hard to watch healthy young men doing nothing.”
(Michael Deacon. White Feather women didn’t impress those at the Front. The Daily Telegraph. September 19, 2011.)



Sir: I would like to commend TIME, Oct. 27 for printing the cartoons depicting Vice President Nixon's tactics and blunders. They were so very true. MARSHA MASON St. Louis

Sir: Nixon has never shown a white feather concerning Communism. The smearing cartoons by the Washington Post's Herblock and the St. Louis Post-Dispatch's Mauldin must have caused their editors to give them a "shower" of red stars. It would be appropriate if these cartoonists signed their names in red ink.
(Time. November 17, 1958.)


Hollywood craftsmen spliced around them a silly but exciting story about an Englishman whose best friends hand him white feathers when they find out he is scared of going to war against the blacks. When his sweetheart hands him the fourth white feather, he starts a series of heroic deeds which result in preserving his three friends in turn and possibly also the British Empire.
(Time. June 24, 1929.)



色が演出するイメージ(3) ― pink-collar





The dual-income household became the norm, a development that changed familial relationships and effectively created a reserve army of exploitable, relatively immobile, predominantly female labor. As a result, so-called pink-collar ghettos, staffed by poorly paid, female back-office workers, have proliferated in suburban office parks, in declining central cities, and in small urban centers, as the big-city corporate decision-making function has become locationally separated from the routine tasks of business.
(Geographical Review. 1990.)


Australia's open-market economy generates widespread fear of job insecurity among junior professionals as well as blue and pink collar workers. This fear will remain until government can develop seamless training and support mechanisms for retrenched workers who have learnt their skills on the job to move into equivalent work.
(Knowledge shift not smart for all. The Age. September 1, 2011.)




色が演出するイメージ(2) ― greenmail



Mr. Luzhkov, who said he had been teaching at a Moscow university since he left office, indicated that he might return to politics but did not speak of specific plans. Business, he said, was unappetizing.

“Today it is not possible to conduct business in Moscow,” he said. “There have been many cases of corporate raiding, greenmail, unjustified meddling by the government in business. It is no accident that capital, like people, are fleeing from Russia.”
(Michael Schwirtz. Moscow’s Ousted Mayor Criticizes Russian Politics. The New York Times. September 19, 2011.)


余談ですが、米国の永住許可証は"green card"と呼ばれていました。これもカードが緑がかっていたからですが、お札も許可証も薄緑色とは、アメリカ人は緑好きでしょうか?(永住許可証は、今現在は緑色ではないようです。)




Prosecutors, on the other hand, say their requests for secrecy are valid and prevent the defendant from bullying prosecutors into dropping their case for fear of disclosing sensitive information, a practice commonly referred to as "graymail."

"Secrecy characterizes case against ex-CIA officer," WSJ.com, Aug. 30

Graymail is modeled on "blackmail" (the -mail here is not from the post office but a word meaning "payment, rent"). There's also "greenmail" (profiting from an attempted hostile takeover by forcing the target company to buy back the bidder's shares at an inflated price).
(Erin McKean. Week in Words. The Wall Street Journal. September 3, 2011.)



色が演出するイメージ ― blue chip




初日の今日取り上げる単語は、"blue chip"です。

The London Stock Exchange’s share of trading in FTSE 100 blue-chip stocks has dipped below 50 per cent in recent weeks for the first time in a sign that it continues to face stiff competition from rival platforms such as Chi-X Europe.
(Jeremy Grant. LSE share of Footsie dips below 50%. The Financial Times. September 18, 2011.)

"blue chip"は株の銘柄でも、高値を付ける優良企業のそれを指す表現です。実は2年前にも取り上げたのですが、英語で"blue"が形容詞としてどちらかというとネガティヴな意味で用いられがちなのに、"blue chip"という単語だけちょっと違っている、ということで片づけており、今週のテーマのように特集にすることはありませんでした。(きっと忙しくて余裕がなかったのかと・・・。)ということで、今週のテーマにご期待下さい。

話が戻りますが、"blue chip"は、株の銘柄に限らず、恐らくはそこから意味が発展して、いわゆる優良、一流を指すのに使われるようになりました。

Carlton coach Brett Ratten hopes to lure a "blue-chip forward" to the Blues as he tries to find the missing piece to the premiership puzzle.
(Carlton to target blue-chip forward. ABC Australia. September 18, 2011.)

"blue chip"がこのように優良株を意味するようになった背景ですが、Wikipediaによるとポーカーゲームで掛け金を積むのに使われるディスクが色分けされていて、青色のディスクが一番高額であることに由来するという説と、貴族など良家の出自を意味するのに"blue blood"という表現が用いられることから由来するという説の2つがあるそうです。


活性化 ― revving up


Drug maker GlaxoSmithKline believes it can harness the cutting-edge technology of motor racing to become more efficient and compete better against its rivals.

Britain’s biggest medicine maker, which has been diversifying itself and branching out into new segments in recent years under CEO Andrew Witty, is partnering with the Formula One motor racing engineers McLaren in the hope of revving up its R&D performance, manufacturing processes and reactions to changing consumer trends and tastes.

The two British companies will build a new learning facility called the McLaren GSK Centre for Applied Performance where workers from both companies will share ideas and collaborate on joint working projects.
(Sten Stovall. Glaxo Teams Up With F1′s McLaren. The Wall Street Journal. September 15, 2011.)


さて、今日の単語ですが、上記引用の2段落目に出てくる"revving up"という単語はちょっと見かけない単語です。(最初、"rewing"と間違って認識したのですが、そんな単語は英語にありません。"v"が2つです。)


自動車のエンジンについて使われることが多く、エンジンの回転数を上げることを"rev up"、その逆で回転数を下げる場合は、"rev down"です。




電子たばこは無害か? ― vaping

電子たばこ(electronic cigarette; e-cig)なるものが発売されてからどれくらいになるのか、また普及率がどの程度なのか知りませんが、アメリカで旅客機のフライトでの電子たばこを禁止する動きがあるようです。

WASHINGTON — The Obama administration on Wednesday proposed banning the use of electronic cigarettes on airline flights, saying there is concern the smokeless cigarettes may be harmful.

"Airline passengers have rights, and this new rule would enhance passenger comfort and reduce any confusion surrounding the use of electronic cigarettes in flight," Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood said in a statement.

The ban would clarify an existing Transportation Department rule prohibiting smoking cigarettes or similar products on airline flights.


E-cigarettes, as they are popularly called, are designed to deliver nicotine or other substances to the smoker in the form of a vapor. They are powered by small lithium ion-batteries. Industry officials say there is no possible harm to the public from their use.

"Everybody knows that when you are smoking on an airplane that's an absolutely a no-no. But this is not smoking. This is vaping," said Ray Story, CEO of the Tobacco Vapor Electronic Cigarette Association.
(Joan Lowy. Ban proposed on electronic cigarettes on planes. Atlanta Journal Constitution. September 14, 2011.)



"But this is not smoking. This is vaping."とある個所ですが、"smoking"(煙を吐いている)のではない、"vaping"なのだ、ということで、コンテクスト的にも、またスペルからも"vapor"に関連していることは分かりますが、初めてみる単語ではないでしょうか?

ちなみに手元のランダムハウス英和辞書、American Heritage Dictionaryにはエントリはありません。




方針転換 ― take a different tack

9月13日付のComputer World誌の記事で、マイクロソフト社のWindows 8のプレビューがリリースされるというニュースが取り上げられています。

Microsoft opens Windows 8 preview to all
Anyone can download an early look at the next-generation OS

Computerworld - Taking a different tack than it did three years ago, Microsoft has made a preview of Windows 8 available to anyone who takes the time to download it.

Windows 8 Developer Preview, as Microsoft called the pre-beta build, was posted to a company website shortly after 8 p.m. Eastern on Tuesday.

The downloads, which range from 2.8GB to 4.8GB in size, come with no restrictions, a company spokeswoman confirmed earlier in the day.
(Gregg Keizer. Computerworld. September 13, 2011.)

記事の冒頭で、"taking a different tack..."という表現が使われています。"tack"とは何のことでしょうか?

辞書で"tack"を引くと複数のエントリがありますが、最も身近なのは”画鋲”の意味で用いられる"tack"ではないでしょうか。"taking a different tack"の"tack"もこの、画鋲という意味の"tack"なのですが、"tack"には画鋲以外にも様々な意味があるようです。


戻って、"taking a different tack"ですが、これは以前とは異なった方針を取る、という場合に使われる慣用的な表現です。



While Fox has built a wall around its content, and ABC is considering doing the same, Comcast's (Nasdaq: CMCSA) NBCUniversal has taken a different tack, last week making more of its content available in full to iPad users. And the move, said BTIG Research analyst Richard Greenfield, makes the sale of Hulu more difficult.
(Jim O'Neil. NBC's new flood of content for iPad throws a wrench into Hulu auction. FierceIPTV. September 13, 2011.)


ところで、"tack"を修飾するのは"different"に限りません。"taking a similar tack"であれば、同じような路線を取って、という意味になります。

SINCE the financial crisis began, millions of wealthy consumers have decided to play down the joy of accumulating things in favor of the pleasure of accumulating experiences. As a result, purveyors of premium-priced products and services are embracing the notion that they provide customers with moments to remember rather than with more stuff that needs dusting (by the help, most likely).

A case in point is the Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company division of Marriott International, which is expressing that sentiment as the theme of a campaign scheduled to begin on Thursday: “Let us stay with you.”


Another upscale lodging chain, Orient-Express Hotels, is taking a similar tack in a campaign that is to begin on Monday, which carries the theme “Embark on a journey like no other.” The campaign is centered on video clips of a fictional family whose name, the Astorbilts, evokes wealth of yore but whose behavior is contemporary, valuing experiences over material possessions.
(Stuart Elliott. Luxury Hotels Market the Memories They Can Make. The New York Times. September 13, 2011.)

こちらは競合相手と同じ路線を歩むということで、"a similar tack"という訳です。

"different tack"とほぼ同様の意味ですが、"opposite tack"という用例もあります。

Hyatt Hotels & Resorts is eliminating stocked minibars from some of its convention hotels, leaving empty refrigerators for guests to use for their own items. It is adding stores selling snacks and fresh foods in many lobbies. Hilton and Omni are making similar moves.

Other hotels—especially luxury spots—are taking the opposite tack, throwing in free minibar goodies. The Ocean House in Westerly, R.I., stocks its rooms with nonalcoholic drinks and glass jars filled with trail mix, malted-milk balls and mixed nuts.
(Andrea Petersen. Cracking Open the Hotel Minibar. The Wall Street Journal. September 14, 2011.)



新手のネット詐欺、タイプミスにご用心 ― doppelganger

GoogleニュースのTechnologyセクションを斜め読みしていますと、タイプミスがハッカーの新たな武器に(Hacker's new weapon - typos)という見出しが目に留まりました。


The problem arises because of the way organisations set up their email systems. While most have a single domain for their website, many use sub-domains for individual business units, regional offices or foreign subsidiaries.

Dots or full stops are used to separate the words in that sub domain.

For example a large American financial group may take bank.com as its corporate home but internally use us.bank.com for staff email.

Usually, if an address is typed with one of the dots missing, ie usbank.com, then the message is returned to its sender.

But by setting up similar doppelganger domains, the researchers were able to receive messages that would otherwise be bounced back.

"Doppelganger domains have a potent impact via email as attackers could gather information such as trade secrets, user names and passwords, and other employee information," wrote the researchers in a paper detailing their work.
(Bad spelling opens up security loophole. BBC News. September 12, 2011.)

ドメインやサブドメインの区切り文字として使われるドット(.)があるかないかだけで、コンピュータの世界では異なるアドレスと区別されるわけで、そこを狙った新手のinternet scamということになります。


さて、上記の引用文中に、"doppelganger domain"という言葉が使われていますが、これは本家と似たような紛らわしいドメイン、のことを指しています。つまり詐欺に使われる方の、正しくない、本家とは似て非なるサイト名(ドメイン)のことです。


American Heritage Dictionaryによると、

doppelganger (DOP-uhl-gang-er) noun

A ghostly counterpart or double of a living person.

[From German, literally a double goer.]




青少年の方はご遠慮下さい ― the Big "O"



Decades of research have failed to answer the question of why the female orgasm exists -- and two recent conflicting studies on the subject have hardly changed that. Interestingly enough, though, both focus on a theory sure to anger some women: that their ability to climax is the mere byproduct of men's orgasm, which has a clear evolutionary purpose. We may not have proof of this one way or another, but it's worth exploring the potential cultural implications.

The most obvious explanation for the female big "O" is that it motivates women to have more sex, resulting in more babies (or, in wonkier terms, "reproductive success"). Another intuitive theory is that it serves to cement feelings of love and intimacy, thereby supporting parental investment. Then there's the, um, evocatively named "sperm upsuck" theory -- that uterine contractions during orgasm help draw in little swimmers. But many of these approaches have been empirically discredited and it's the "byproduct" theory that has been held in increasing esteem by researchers.
(Tracy Clark-Flory. Why does the female orgasm exist? Salon. September 10, 2011.)

Google NewsのUS版でサイエンス関係の記事を斜め読みしていたところ目に留まったのですが、一旦はスルーしたのですが、どうも内容が気になって・・・(笑)

さて、今日取り上げる単語、the Big "O"が何を意味しているかは説明するだけ野暮ですね?




台風の発生 ― brew




As Katia blows by the East Coast, Nate and Maria are brewing in tropics

Hurricane Katia is churning high surf and rip tides on the East Coast before racing across the Atlantic. But Nate is stewing in the Gulf of Mexico and Maria is skimming toward the Caribbean.
(The Christian Science Monitor. September 8, 2011.)


ランダムハウス英語辞書によりますと、”be brewing”という形で、


という意味で用いられるということです。American Heritage Dictionaryでは、

To be imminent; impend


storms brewing on every frontier (John Dos Passos)



Louisiana Declares Emergency as Storm Brews in the Gulf

Louisiana Gov. Bobby Jindal on Thursday declared a state of emergency because a tropical disturbance in the Gulf of Mexico ‑- with increasingly organized thunderstorm activity -- could drench the state with up to 15 inches of rain over the weekend.

The tropical depression will be called Lee if it upgrades to a tropical storm. It is currently creeping north through the Gulf. It could spur torrential rains and coastal flooding from the Florida Panhandle to Texas-Louisiana border, National Hurricane Center Director Bill Read said.
(International Business Times. September 1, 2011.)


Another storm brewing in Gulf

Pensacola Beach is still drying out and digging out after being pounded by high surf and heavy rain from Tropical Storm Lee.

And, now, W. A. “Buck” Lee, Santa Rosa Island Authority executive director, is warning beach residents to keep a watchful eye on another tropical disturbance brewing in the Bay of Campeche, in the far southwestern corner of the Gulf of Mexico.

“Though it’s still a ways out, please monitor your news sources for updates,” Lee stated in an email blast to residents this morning.
(PNJ.com. September 8, 2011.)





まずは下記の引用から。"make landfall"という表現は、いわゆる台風の”上陸”を指しています。

Tropical cyclone Lee officially made landfall as a tropical storm Saturday afternoon along the coast of Louisiana. Up to 20 inches of rain is expected along some areas of the Gulf Coast, according to the Associated Press.
(Kristeen Moore. Tropical Cyclone Lee Brings Heavy Rainfall to Gulf Coast. Third Age. September 3, 2011.)

台風の動きについて、ごくごく普通の表現ですが、"moved slowly"はゆっくりとした動きを指しています。

Tropical Storm Lee moved slowly across the Louisiana coast at an estimated six miles per hour, according to the Associated Press. The flooding rains are directly attributed to the slow movement of the cyclone.


Katia's creeping across the ocean at 18 miles per hour, about 1,050 miles east of the Leeward Islands (around 1,700 southeast of Bermuda) with maximum sustained winds currently near 75 mph, but according to the National Hurricane Center (NHS), it's expected to speed up dramatically over the weekend, surpassing wind speeds of 111 mph.
(Matt Peckham. Katia Reaches Hurricane Strength as Tropical Cyclone Looms in Gulf. September 1, 2011.)

下記の引用での"churn toward"はかなり特徴的な表現だと思われます。"churn"とは撹拌器のことですが、つまりは台風による暴風が周囲を”撹拌している”様を表現しているわけで、強い勢力を保ちながら移動している、といった感じでしょうか。

Newly christened Tropical Storm Lee and Hurricane Katia are both churning towards the United States, and while both are days away from impacting New Jersey, they bear watching as our waterlogged state tries to dry out from Hurricane Irene.
(Stephen Stirling. Tropical Storm Lee, Hurricane Katia pose tricky N.J. forecast for next week. NJ.com. September 2, 2011.)

下記の"crawled ashore"は、やはり緩慢な動きを表現していますが、"ashore"という副詞をつけることで、”上陸した”ことも意味しています。

Slow moving Tropical Storm Lee finally crawled ashore early Sunday morning along the Lousiana coast line while causing high surf and torrential downpours across Florida's panhandle and affecting weather as far away as Tampa Bay.
(Mike Hennessy. Tampa Bay to feel Lee's impact through Tuesday. Examiner. September 4, 2011.)

下記の"inch toward"も同じです。

People down in Cypremort Point are already taking precautions as Tropical Storm Lee inches toward the bay. During the day Friday, Lee didn't seem too threatening in Cypremort Point, but people there aren't taking any chances.
(Maddie Garrett. Cypremort Point Braces for Storm. KATC.com. September 2, 2011.)


Tropical storm Irene continues to trudge through New England, knocking out power to millions of homes and businesses, destroying piers and killing more than a dozen people. In Maine, Meteorologist Tom Hawley of the National Weather Service says rain has tapered off in the southwestern part of the state. But it continues to be heavy in other places, especially the western mountains.
(High Winds and Flooding Focused on Western Maine. MPBN.net. August 28, 2011.)



こんな意味もあったの? ― system



Lee dumped more than a foot of rain in New Orleans and spun off tornadoes elsewhere Sunday as its center came ashore in a slow crawl north that raised fears of inland flash flooding in the Deep South and beyond.

The massive weather system spent most of the day as a tropical storm but weakened late in the evening to a tropical depression with maximum sustained winds of 35 mph (55 kph).


The vast, soggy system spent hours during the weekend hovering in the northernmost Gulf of Mexico before its center finally crossed into Louisiana west of New Orleans,pelting a wide swath of coastline.
(Jay Reeves. Lee weakens to depression with 35 mph winds. Atlanta Journal Constitution. September 4, 2011.)






低気圧 ― depression



日本語ニュースでよく、”台風xx号は本日午後、温帯低気圧に変わりました・・・”などと表現されますが、この”温帯低気圧”に相当する英語表現は"tropical depression"のようです。

No longer a hurricane, a tropical storm or even a tropical depression, Lee continued to drench the South, causing relatively mild flooding and power outages in flatter areas, and promising greater mischief as it moved over more mountainous terrain this week.
(Rick Hampson. Lee's remnants bring floods, feeds fires. USA Today. September 5, 2011.)



Although the Typhoon Talas was downgraded to a tropical storm late Sunday as it moved off into the Sea of Japan, forecasters warned that heavy rains and strong winds were likely to continue due to the storm’s slow speed.
(Japan: Typhoon Talas Leaves 37 Dead, 56 Missing. The Inquisitr. September 5, 2011.)

"tropical storm"の表現が見られます。"downgrade"とありますので、例の猛威を奮う台風から温帯低気圧への変化を言っているものと思われますが、"tropical depression"とは違う表現であり、同義なのかちょっとわからなくなってきます。

ちなみにランダムハウス英語辞書によりますと、"depression"の項に、参照として"cyclone"という単語が載っています。"cyclone"の項には、”熱帯性低気圧”という訳語の他に”温帯性低気圧”という訳語もあり、これもややこしいですが、ニュースで言われている温帯性低気圧は勢力がやや弱まった暴風のことを指している、"tropical storm"あるいは"depression"のことと解釈して差し支えないでしょう。

ちなみに日本の気象庁のホームページで提供されている台風情報の英文版では、"tropical cyclone"が用いられています。


鉄砲水 ― flash flood



Lee weakens to depression with 35 mph winds

SAUCIER, Miss. — Lee dumped more than a foot of rain in New Orleans and spun off tornadoes elsewhere Sunday as its center came ashore in a slow crawl north that raised fears of inland flash flooding in the Deep South and beyond.

The massive weather system spent most of the day as a tropical storm but weakened late in the evening to a tropical depression with maximum sustained winds of 35 mph (55 kph). While the change reflected its diminishing wind speeds, forecasters say heavy rain and flooding remain a threat.
(Jay Reeves. Lee weakens to depression with 35 mph winds. Atlanta Journal Constitution. September 4, 2011.)

さて、台風による大雨のために局所的に水量が増して発生する”鉄砲水”のことを、英語では"flash flood"ということを今日、この記事を読んで知った次第です。


そうしますと、鉄砲水も"flush flood"がイメージに合うようにも思われるのですが、正しくは"flash flood"です。



iPhone盗難はでっち上げ? ― BS

昨日だったか、Yahoo! Japanのヘッドラインでも出ていたので覚えているのですが、iPhoneの開発中の新製品プロトタイプが盗難にあったというニュースがありました。米アップル社の社員がサンフランシスコのバーに置き忘れたとかいう間抜けな話だったと記憶しています。


Well, it sounded fishy, and it seems that it was.

A couple of days ago, CNET reported that the San Francisco police had teamed up with Apple to investigate another lost iPhone prototype.

CNET said the phone had been lost in a bar and that police investigators had traced the phone to the house of a man in Bernal Heights and that he had denied knowing anything about it.
(Henry Blodget. That New "Lost iPhone" Story Was A Bunch Of BS, Say San Francisco Police. Business Insider. September 1, 2011.)


That New "Lost iPhone" Story Was A Bunch Of BS, Say San Francisco Police

"BS"って何?"a bunch of BS"とは?




こんな意味もあったの? ― purchase




IMAGINE, if you will, a young Mark Zuckerberg circa 2003, tapping out e-mail messages from his Harvard dorm room. It’s safe bet he never would have guessed that eight years later a multibillion-dollar lawsuit might hinge on whether he capitalized the word “Internet,” or whether he spelled “cannot” as one word or two.

But that is exactly the kind of stylistic minutiae being analyzed in a lawsuit filed by Paul Ceglia, owner of a wood-pellet fuel company in upstate New York. Mr. Ceglia says that a work-for-hire contract he arranged with Mr. Zuckerberg, then an 18-year-old Harvard freshman, entitles him to half of the Facebook fortune. He has backed up his claim with e-mails purported to be from Mr. Zuckerberg, but Facebook’s lawyers argue that the e-mail exchanges are fabrications.

When legal teams need to prove or disprove the authorship of key texts, they call in the forensic linguists. Scholars in the field have tackled the disputed origins of some prestigious works, from Shakespearean sonnets to the Federalist Papers. But how reliably can linguistic experts establish that Person A wrote Document X when Document X is an e-mail -- or worse, a terse note sent by instant message or Twitter? After all, e-mails and their ilk give us a much more limited purchase on an author’s idiosyncrasies than an extended work of literature. Does digital writing leave fingerprints?
(Ben Zimmer. Decoding Your E-mail Personality. The New York Times. July 23, 2011.)




((通例単数扱い))しっかりと握ること; しっかりとした足がかり; (車のタイヤが)滑らないで地面をとらえること



get a purchase on


The splinters burrowed deeper, into her arm, but her attention was all on that waterwheel -- groan ing, roaring, thrashing the water below like a wounded water beast. Fingernails gripping the cloth of the child's shirt, Meredydd tried to get a purchase on the deck with her knees. The attempt only caused her to slip further over the edge.
(Maya Kaathryn Bohnhoff. The Meri. 1992.)