こんな意味もあったの? - pulse


Beans, chickpeas, peas, lentils: Humble foods that may pack a punch for weight loss, Canadian researchers report.

A new analysis of data from 21 clinical trials on these foods -- collectively known as "pulses" -- finds that they can help dieters feel full, and shed unwanted pounds.

"Though the weight loss was small, our findings suggest that simply including pulses in your diet may help you lose weight, and we think more importantly, prevent you from gaining it back after you lose it," study lead author Russell de Souza, a researcher at St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto, said in a hospital news release.
(Study: beans, chickpeas might help with weight loss. HealthDay News. March 30, 2016.)



どちらの"pulse"もラテン語由来なのですが、「脈拍」の"pulse"は打つという意味のラテン語pulsus (pellere)から、「豆類」の"pulse"は同じ意味のラテン語pulsに由来するそうです。


five-second rule!?




London - There are few things more frustrating than watching a tasty morsel slip through your fingers.

Most of us would admit to living by the “five second rule” - judging that it is safe to pick up and eat food that has only touched the floor momentarily.

But researchers have claimed the age-old convention is a myth - and warned that more than a third of us are putting ourselves at risk of contracting a “silent killer” by eating food we have dropped.

They said that harmful household bugs such as E. coli and salmonella stick to food in an instant, meaning dropped food should be binned regardless of how long it has touched the floor.
(Jim Norton. Five-second rule? It’s a myth. Independent Online. March 30, 2016.)

記事では、"five second rule"と呼んでいます。他の記事によりますと、"three-second rule"というのも存在するそうです。


"xx-second rule"の存在は、人類共通で「勿体無い」の精神が浸透していることの証左でしょうか。


右にスワイプ?それとも左? ― a swipe right / a swipe left


When it comes to impressing potential dates, a little change in posture might make the difference between a swipe right and a swipe left. A new study led by a UC Berkeley researcher finds that, when all you’ve got is a moment, people who use more expansive, dominant gestures are the ones most likely to earn a second look.

The findings, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, show that for the postures of both men and women, bigger is often better – and offer some insight into why those gestures are so attractive.

In all stages of romance, body language does a lot of the talking. Positive facial expressions like smiling and laughing do double duty – they signal that someone is feeling close to another person and they also make that other person feel closer in return. Previous research has shown that between committed partners, gestures like nodding, smiling and leaning forward are linked to those partners’ self-reported feelings of love.

But in the fast-paced world of speed-dating and dating apps like Tinder, first impressions are extremely brief, over with the swipe of a thumb. Still, humans are apparently quite good at making judgments on a potential mate in a fraction of a second.
(Amina Khan. To maximize speed-dating success, uncross those arms and take up space. Los Angeles Times. March 28, 2016.)




make the difference between a swipe right and a swipe left



“a swipe right”は次に進む(つまり、より詳細な情報を得る)動作であり、“a swipe left”は元に戻る(つまり、これ以上の詳細は必要ないので、また別のエントリを確認する)動作、です。




ビタミンCで白内障予防 ― cataract



Cataracts are like a cloudy day, only the clouds are in your eyes. More than half of all Americans will develop a cataract or have cataract surgery by the time they turn 80. But according to a new study published in the journal Ophthalmology, a healthy diet of fruits and vegetables can help prevent the disease regardless of genetic predisposition.

The condition develops in the lens, which is the clear part of the eye that helps light travel into the back of the eye and create an image. Cataracts cloud the lens in the eye and affect vision, making it more difficult to see with age. According to the National Eye Institute, treating cataracts before it worsens is key to preventing it from spreading one eye to another.
(Samantha Olson. A Healthy Diet Rich In Vitamin C May Lower Risk Of Cataracts By 20%. Medical Daily. March 27, 2016.)







spick and span



In an industry-first groundbreaking research in the world of nanotechnology, a little bit of sunshine or even a light bulb is all you might need to get your clothes spick and span.

Scientists from the RMIT University in Melbourne and Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane, Australia have been remarkably instrumental in researching and developing a pioneering nanotechnology methodology that encompasses the ability to create textiles that can miraculously clean itself.

The technique behind these self-cleaning textiles is quite interesting. Copper and silver-based nanostructures are already famed for their ability in terms of absorption of light. When these nanostructures are infused into the fabric and exposed to light, they subsequently break down the organic matter such as stains from food products that are present on the cloth, making it clean.
(Helen Clark. Aussie researchers develop self-cleaning textiles by just exposing to light. The Marshall Town. March 24, 2016.)



spick and span





テロの温床 ― incubator


BRUSSELS — The bomb attacks in Belgium offer new evidence of its security forces’ shortcomings in monitoring violent Islamist radicals, a failure that has allowed this country at the heart of Europe to become an incubator of terror.

One glaring example: Belgian authorities knew that at least one of the two siblings who blew themselves up in Tuesday’s attacks — Ibrahim el-Bakraoui, 29 — had entered Turkey with the apparent intent of joining Islamist militants in Syria, according to a senior Turkish security official, who spoke on the condition of anonymity because of the sensitivity of the subject. Bakraoui was stopped by Turkish authorities last summer at the Syrian border and sent to the neighboring Netherlands. But Belgian officials now say that at the time, they did not equate his attempt to join the fighters with a possible terrorist threat.
(Bomb attacks show how Belgium became an incubator of terror. The Washington Post. March 23, 2016.)






A place or situation that permits or encourages the formation and development, as of new ideas
(American Heritage Dictionary)

an organization or place that aids the development of new business ventures especially by providing low-cost commercial space, management assistance, or shared services
(Merriam-Webster Dictionary)







NEW YORK — For more than a month, federal investigators have insisted they have no alternative but to force Apple to help them open up a phone used by one of the San Bernardino shooters.

That changed Monday when the Justice Department said an “outside party” recently showed the FBI a different way to access the data on the phone used by Syed Farook, who with his wife killed 14 people in the Dec. 2 attack.


But federal officials have been mum about who came forward and what method they’ve proposed. Here are some of the leading options outside experts think the FBI might be exploring.

One likely scenario involves making multiple copies of the iPhone’s flash memory, which investigators could use to restore the phone’s data should they inadvertently trigger the phone’s “self-destruct” feature by making too many wrong guesses at the passcode.

That feature doesn’t actually erase all the files on the iPhone. Instead, it erases a section of the iPhone’s memory that contains one of the keys necessary to unlock the data on the phone. This section, known as the “effaceable storage,” sits in a memory chip that theoretically could be removed and plugged into a reader device that’s capable of electronically copying what’s stored on the chip — and then replacing the data if it’s been erased.
(How the FBI might hack into an iPhone without Apple’s help. The Washington Post. March 22, 2016.)


記事では予測されるシナリオのいくつかが紹介されているのですが、アイフォーンのセキュリティ仕様として、パスコード入力画面で10回以上間違えるとデータを自動的に消去してしまう機能("self-destruct" feature)がネックになっている点について触れられています。

この"self-destruct feature"というのはデータを完全消去するというよりも、データ暗号化のキーが保管されているメモリ上のセクションを消去してしまうのだそうです。


effaceable storage







晴天の霹靂 ― a bolt from the blue



The FBI now says it doesn't need any help from Apple to get into the San Bernardino shooter's iPhone—shocking Apple, and raising a lot of new questions.

No more than 18 hours before a scheduled court hearing, the FBI is now saying it doesn’t need any help from Apple to get into San Bernardino shooter Syed Rizwan Farook’s iPhone 5c. So, as of Monday night, the hearing has been called off, and the February 16 court order that started Apple’s battle with the FBI has been stayed.

Wait, what?

“On Sunday, March 20, 2016, an outside party demonstrated to the FBI a possible method for unlocking Farook’s iPhone,” the Department of Justice wrote in a Monday afternoon court filing. “Testing is required to determine whether it is a viable method that will not compromise data on Farook’s iPhone. If the method is viable, it should eliminate the need for the assistance from Apple set forth in the All Writs Act Order in this case.”
(Susie Ochs. Apple: FBI's surprise postponement of court hearing is a 'bolt from the blue.' Mac World. March 21, 2016.)



a bolt from the blue




"bolt"は"thunderbolt"(雷)、"blue"は"blue sky"(青空)のことです。




kiss of death



Can't get that last bit of lip balm out of the tube? Scrape it out with your finger. That's basically what a federal appeals court told a California woman Thursday when it dismissed her class-action lawsuit alleging Fresh Inc. conned consumers into thinking there was more of its Sugar Lip Treatment in the tube than they could actually access, Courthouse News Service reports.

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit rejected Angela Ebner's claim that the company tried to mislead consumers about the quantity of its lip balm, which sells for roughly $24 a tube, per the AP. Ebner had insisted that the way the company packaged and dispensed the lip treatment was in violation of her state's consumer protection laws, Reuters notes.
(Kiss of death for lawsuit against $24 lip balm. USA Today. March 19, 2016.)



Kiss of death for lawsuit against $24 lip balm


kiss of death





また、リップクリームが話題だけに、"kiss of death"はそれにひっかけたしゃれでもあるでしょう。


電話ですますのはやっぱり失礼 ― phone it in

"phone it in"という成句をご存知でしょうか?


This is one mom who doesn’t just phone it in.

A Spanish widow racked up a monster telephone bill after waiting on hold for 56 long hours in hopes that the company on the other of the line would have a job for her 36-year-old unemployed son.

The 68-year-old mother from Murcia — who has not yet been identified — saw a TV ad touting an unemployment helpline, which actually charges callers for every minute they stay on the line, according to The Local.

Thanks to “caffeinated soft drinks to keep her awake,” the mom was able to manage the marathon wait time, the site reported.
(Sophia Rosenbaum. Widow spent 56 hours on the phone trying to get her son a job. New York Post. March 17, 2016.)

"phone it in"が冒頭で使われていますが、何を言っているのかよく分からないので読み進めます。どうやら高齢の女性がかなり長時間に渡る通話料を請求されて困っているということですが、それは無職の息子に何とかして職を探すためでした。しかし、どうやら騙されたということのようです。

冒頭の"phone it in"に戻りますと、やはりこの成句が何を意味しているのかはよく分からないのですが、恐らく電話をするという意味の"phone"とかけて、ある意味しゃれのように使われているのだと想像しました。


To do something in a perfunctory way or with little interest
(American Heritage Dictionary)


"phone it in"は、つまり事をいい加減に済ませる、別に結果がどうなってもいいやというような気持ちでやる、というような意味だと解釈できます。


なぜ、"phone it in"がそのような意味になるのか?

語源を求めましたがもっともらしい典拠や説明を見つけることができていません。一説には、"phone it in"とは、本来果たすべき義務を電話で済まそうとする行為のことを意味している、というものがあり、なるほどと思いました。


"phone it in"の"it"はいろいろあるでしょうが、「大事なこと」を指しているのだろうと思われます。大事なことはやっぱり直接会って話す必要があるのです。


lazy Susan




lazy Susan


If you love a domestic mystery, consider the case of the Lazy Susan. This humble household helper has slogged through centuries essentially unchanged.

Despite its enduring popularity, definitive documentation on the design’s origins remain oddly elusive. Logic dictates that some time long ago, a sloth named Susan inspired the entire galaxy of twirling servers. Who was she? And who invented the turntable trays that link her forever with an insulting adjective?

It’s a very cold case. Amateur Internet sleuths credit two Thomases (Jefferson and Edison) for the invention, allegedly named after sluggish daughters. Historians say there’s no proof to back either assertion.
(Back Story: Who was Susan, and was she truly lazy? Los Angeles Times. March 25, 2010.)

"lazy Susan"は直訳すれば、「怠け者のスーザン」となりますが、中華料理の円卓設備が何故そのように言われるようになったのでしょうか?


"lazy Susan"と言う代わりに、"dumbwaiter"という単語もあるようです。この"dumbwaiter"も同様に、円卓の設備のお蔭で仕事が無くなったということに由来するようです。


困った! ― Armageddon




WASHINGTON — It’s already being branded #Metromageddon.

Hundreds of thousands of Washington, D.C., workers were preparing for a potentially soul-sucking commute with the rail system serving the nation’s capital facing a full-day shutdown Wednesday for an emergency safety inspection of its third-rail power cables.
(Entire DC subway system to shut down for inspections. The Washington Post. March 15, 2016.)









Predictions of 'carmageddon' in Austin evaporate

AUSTIN -- The traffic gridlock that had been predicted for President Obama's visit turned out to be, well, a big fat dud.

On most expressways, the morning commute into downtown Austin seemed more like a Sunday morning than a Friday when an estimated 250,000 additional people are in town for the South by Southwest music, film and interactive festival.
(Chron. March 11, 2016.)



For pools less than 300 linear feet in size, the ADA Standard for Accessible Design calls for one means of access, which must be either an ADA-compliant lift or a sloped entry. Pools with greater than 300 linear feet of pool wall must also have a second means of access — either another lift or ramp, or a transfer wall, a transfer system or pool stairs. Estimates have placed the number of pools that need to be brought into compliance at approximately 100,000, thereby helping earn the provision the nickname "poolmageddon." A backlog of orders at lift-manufacturing facilities was said to have been a primary reason for multiple deadline extensions.
(ADA Compliance Deadline Looms. Aqua. January 2013.)



no leaf unturned


No leaf has been left unturned in the search for an elderly woman who has been lost for more than a week in the NSW Blue Mountains, police say.The search for Elizabeth O'Pray, 77, has entered its ninth day since she went missing from her Medlow Bath home, as bad weather adds extra stress to the operation.'Unfortunately we are getting storms nearly every day. There was hail yesterday, but some of the crews just refused to (leave),' Blue Mountains Inspector Peter Balatincz told ABC Radio on Tuesday.
(Ninth day of searching for missing woman. Sky News Australia. March 15, 2016.)



no leaf has been left unturned



leave no stone(s) unturned




"stone"が、"leaf"に変わっているだけなのですが、辞書のエントリに"leave no stone(s) unturned"はあっても、"leaf"はありません。


"leave no stone unturned"というフレーズについては、ネットを検索していますと、古代史の史実に起源があるらしく、ギリシャにほろぼされたクセルクセス(Xerxes)が隠した財宝を探しあてるため、デルフォイの神託を頼ったところ、それが「全ての石を動かせ」、つまり財宝を埋めた土地の全ての石を引っくり返して調べるのが良い、というものだった、ということに因むそうです。






WASHINGTON – Donald Trump is considering paying the legal fees for a supporter who sucker-punched a protester in the face at a recent raucous rally, the mogul said Sunday.

"I've actually instructed my people to look into it, yes," the Republican front-runner told "Meet the Press."

John McGraw, 78, was charged Thursday for punching a black protester, Rakeem Jones, in the face as he was being escorted out of a Trump rally in Fayetteville, NC. Afterwards, McGraw said: "The next time we see him, we might have to kill him."

Trump has been accused of inciting such violence because he's encouraged crowds at previous rallies to take out protesters, offered to pay for legal bills for handling problem guests and lamented the "old days" where you could punch a disrupter in the face and he'd be "carried out on a stretcher."

Marco Rubio said he's concerned someone might die at a Trump rally.
(Marisa Schultz. Trump may pay legal fees of man who punched protester at rally. New York Post. March 13, 2016.)














睡眠は大事です。 ― zzz



The ABCs of Zzzs

Sleep allows our bodies to rest and refuel for the next day. The sleep process is complex and active. As we sleep, there is important internal restoration and recuperation taking place. A lot of the information we take in throughout the day is processed and stored while we sleep.

The sleep-wake cycle is regulated through two systems which interact and balance each other out. These two systems are known as the circadian rhythm and sleep-wake homeostasis.
(Prerana Korpe. Sleep is serious: Catch your Zzzs. U.S. Air Force. March 10, 2016.)


Online Etymology Dictionaryによれば、アルファベットのZを並べて擬声語として用いる例は1852年から見られるそうです。


Since the anthropologist won't be here for a while and you haven't had any sleep, why don't you go catch a few z 's while I keep an eye on things?
(Irene Hannon. Buried secrets. 2015.)


Let kids bag more zees. A relaxed summertime routine can sabotage regular bedtime - leaving kids shortchanged on sleep.
(Todays Parent. 2006.)


pipe dream


pipe dream



an illusory or fantastic plan, hope, or story


Other promises of economic revival have been made since Detroit lost nearly half of its population to suburban flight before and after the 1967 riots. But the magnitude of the gambling industry's plans here and an additional $ 10 billion in economic development projects underway or on the drawing board suggests that the turnaround envisioned by Democratic Mayor Dennis Archer could be more than just a pipe dream.
(Washington Post. 1999.)

なぜ、"pipe dream"というのかについてですが、"pipe"とはアヘンを吸引するパイプのことで、アヘン中毒患者が夢想するようなレベルの話であるという例えから生まれたようです。

Online Etymology Dictionaryによりますと、初出は1870年とされています。アヘン戦争は1840年ですから、それより少し後ということになりますか・・・。


卒業式シーズンです。 ― commencement



卒業式は、英語で"graduation ceremony"と言うものと信じて疑いませんでしたが、ひょんなことから、それ以外の表現があることを知りました。

commencement (ceremony)


Oakland University will recognize its fall 2015 graduates at several commencement ceremonies, which will all take place on Saturday, Dec. 19, in OU’s athletic O’rena.
(OU to honor graduates at fall commencement ceremonies Dec. 19. News at OU. December 9, 2015.)

引用したのは大学の機関紙の類ですが、"commencement ceremonies"は、卒業式を指していると思われます。



There are important differences between commencement and graduation with which you should be familiar.

Commencement refers to the ceremony, officiated by the President of the University, where you share the excitement and importance of your academic accomplishments with peers, family, and friends. It is also a time for the University, Board of Trustees, National University System Chancellor, senior administrators, and faculty to pay special tribute to you for the outstanding efforts you have shown in earning your degree.

Graduation, on the other hand, is a three-step process consisting of submitting an Application for Graduation form, completing all academic requirements for your degree, and settling all financial obligations. The administrative process of degree conferral will indicate your official date of graduation.
(Commencement versus Graduation. National University.)



漆黒の・・・ ― pitch


pitch black


pitch dark


I was attacked while running.

A long time ago I was out for a run after work, enjoying the solitude of a crisp fall night. Daylight saving time had just ended, so it was pitch black. Without warning, or any menacing-looking characters in sight, my attacker grabbed me from behind and attempted to pull me into the darkness of a golf course by the side of the busy suburban road I’d been running along. With his hands around me I screamed, kicked, and violently scratched with all my might. Somehow I managed to spin myself around, catching a clear look at his face as I wriggled out of his grip to run away—fast. I kept running until I reached home and called the police.
(Lori Adams. 11 Safety Tips for Running in the Dark. Runner's World. December 8, 2015.)




He who touches pitch shall be defiled therewith.




Eメールの創始者が死去 ― at sign

今日のニュースのヘッドラインを見ていますと、ロナルド・レーガン元大統領夫人の死去を伝える記事がトップでした。その陰で、ということでもないのですが、電子メールの創始者とされる、Raymond Tomlinson氏の死去を伝える記事がありました。

Raymond Samuel Tomlinson, who is credited with inventing email and putting the now ubiquitous “@” sign in addresses, has died at the age of 74.

Tomlinson, who helped in the evolution of single-computer email into electronic mail that could send communications across network connections to other hosts, used the sign in the address to connect the user name with the destination address and provide a way to distinguish local mail from network mail.

“I chose to append an at sign and the host name to the user's (login) name. I am frequently asked why I chose the at sign, but the at sign just makes sense,” he wrote in a post about the first network email. “The purpose of the at sign (in English) was to indicate a unit price (for example, 10 items @ $1.95). I used the at sign to indicate that the user was "at" some other host rather than being local.”

By doing this, he could have saved the sign from extinction as some were considering removing it from the keyboard, he wrote.
(John Ribeiro. Ray Tomlinson, email inventor who picked the @ sign for addresses, dies. Computer World. March 7, 2016.)



at sign

と表現されています。不思議な話ですが、日本語で“アットマーク”と読んでいるこの記号は、英語では"at sign"と呼ぶのが普通のようです。


at mark、また、at-mark address

というエントリがあるのですが、American Heritage Dictionary、Merriam-Webster Dictionaryでは、"at mark"のエントリはなく、"at sign"しか載っていません。

ここで、ランダムハウス英和辞書の"at mark"というエントリは日本語のカタカナ用語に引っ張られたのではないのかという疑念が出てくるのですが、よく分からないところです。



lay a mitt on

アメリカ大統領選はスーパーチューズデーと呼ばれる1つの山場が終わり、ますます盛り上がりが増してきました。一方、勢いの止まらないDonald Trump氏に対する懸念が高まっています。

The Daily Trail: Did Romney manage to lay a mitt on Trump?

HERE'S WHAT MITT ROMNEY SAID at the University of Utah today: "Donald Trump is a phony, a fraud. His promises are as worthless as a degree from Trump University. He's playing members of the American public for suckers: He gets a free ride to the White House, and all we get is a lousy hat."
(Rebecca Sinderbrand. The Daily Trail: Did Romney manage to lay a mitt on Trump? The Washington Post. March 3, 2016.)


lay a mitt on



Elskes said he and Kane often argued but he "never laid a mitt on her."
(Houston Chronicle. 1999.)

口論はしばしばしたけれども、"never laid a mitt on her"と読めます。これは恐らく、「殴る、叩く」の意味だろうと想像がつきます。

その後、"lay a mitt on"よりも、"lay a glove on"という成句として知られているらしいことが分かりました。ここで、"glove"とはボクシングでつけるグローブのことのようです。


not lay a glove on (a person)




米・Sports Authorityが経営破綻 ― short leash

昨日くらいから、アメリカでスポーツ用品の小売店舗を展開するSports Authorityが破産申請をする見込みだという報道がちらほら出ていました。

明けて今日のニュースでは、Chapter 11と言われる、連邦破産法第11章に則って破産の申し立てをしたということで、やはり、という感がしました。この件に関する記事から引用です。

Lenders are giving Sports Authority Inc. until the end of April to find a buyer and close a deal to save part of the ailing retail chain, which sought bankruptcy protection Wednesday.

Some 140 stores are already being sacrificed to appease lenders owed more than $1 billion and more may be closed unless the company finds a buyer or manages to put together a turnaround plan, court papers say.


With a planned bankruptcy auction less than two months away and no offer in hand, Sports Authority is fighting the odds of surviving chapter 11. Existing lenders led by Bank of America Corp., and Wells Fargo & Co. are offering bankruptcy financing but keeping the company on a short leash, requiring Sports Authority to run a bankruptcy auction and close a deal by April 28.
(Peg Brickley. Bankruptcy Lenders Put Sports Authority on Short Leash. Wall Street Journal. March 2, 2016.)

"short leash"、という表現が目に留まりました。

"leash"とは手綱のこと、つまり犬などをつないでおく鎖や紐のことです。その手綱を握っているのは債権者、つながれているのが破産したSports Authority、ということです。

"short leash"ということは、その手綱が短いということですが、それはすなわち、行動を制限している、コントロールしている、という意味になります。(まさに、散歩の際に犬を牽制している飼い主の様そのものです。)

記事のコンテクストに即して言うならば、Chapter 11によって再生を図りたいSports Authorityに対して、同社の「身売り」努力によって債権を回収しようとする債権者がプレッシャーをかけている、というのが構図のようです。


femme fatale




A woman flying out of Baltimore was stopped by airport security after they discovered a pair of gun-shaped stilettos in her carry-on bag.

The femme fatale was trying to go through a checkpoint at Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport on Saturday when she was approached by the Transportation Security Administration agents who found the shoes, along with two bracelets lined with realistic-looking faux bullets.

“Shoes and bracelets that are less than ideal to wear or bring to a @TSA checkpoint. These delayed a traveler at BWI,” tweeted TSA spokeswoman Lisa Farbstein.
(Chris Perez. Femme fatale stopped by airport security for gun-shaped heels. New York Post. March 1, 2016.)


femme fatale



fatal woman






スターバックス、イタリアに殴りこみ ― black eye




The global coffee behemoth Starbucks has 24,000 locations worldwide in 70 countries -- customers can buy grande frappuccinos from Brunei to Brazil to Dubai, as well as nearly two dozen European countries. But one locale has long been missing from its massive footprint: Italy, the home of the espresso bar.

That will change in 2017 when Starbucks finally opens its first location in Milan, followed by others across Italy, a move it announced late Sunday.

Expansions into new countries by global corporations are rarely headline news, but for Starbucks, this occasion is different. For one, the company will be selling its coffee in a place perhaps more associated with coffee aficionados than anywhere in the world -- representing not only a big opportunity to try and prove, but a big risk, too.

"If the country that practically invented cafe culture rejected Starbucks, that would be an enormous black eye," said Laura Ries, a brand consultant based in Atlanta.
(Jena McGregor. Starbucks brought Italian cafe style to America. Can it bring American coffee to Italy? The Washington Post. February 29, 2016.)



"that would be an enormous black eye"


"black eye"というのは、殴られて出来る目の周りの痣を指しています。つまり敗北の象徴ということです。